Instrumentation Diagrams, Documents and Checklist

For a successful completion and the afterwards maintenance of plant instrumentation, the following drawings and documents are required. These documents serves its purpose right from the designing of the plant to erection, commissioning and successful running of plant. The documents are further used for maintenance of the same.

There are basically 2 drawings, more than 23 documents and more than 7 check lists used for instrumentation documentation. A brief explanation is as follows:

The 2 basic drawings are

1. P&ID

2. PFD

The 16 basic documents used for designing and constructions are

1.Piping details of instruments

2.Installation schedule of instruments

3.Calculation sheets for instruments

4.Specification sheets for instruments

5.Cause and effect diagrams of instruments

6.Layout drawings

7.Interconnection wiring diagrams of instruments

8.Process system drawings for equipments

9.Segment diagrams of instruments / GA drawings

10.Special drawings

11.Architect diagram or System block diagram

12.Logic diagrams

13.Emergency shutdown system functional diagram

14.Mounting details/Hook up diagram

15.Decommissioning documents

16.Cable schedule

17.I/O List

18.Vendor list and drawings

19.Instrumentation index

20.Loop drawings

21.JB Schedule

22.Concept node/ Control narrative

23.BOQ

“PICS CLIPS SALE MD CIVIL JCB”

Apart from these documents there are various check lists for instrumentation. These includes

1.SAT/FAT.

2.Punch point list.

3.Inspection report

4.Loop check list.

5.Logic checklist.

6.Process graphics checklist.

7.Installation checklist

8.Calibration check list.

“SPILL PIC”

A brief explanation of diagram can be given as follows:

1.P&ID

The instrumentation department of an engineering firm is responsible for the selection of field devices that best matches the process design requirements. This includes the selection of the transmitters that fit the operating conditions, the type and sizing of valves, and other implementation details. An instrumentation engineer selects field devices that are designed to work under the normal operating conditions specified in the process flow diagram. Tag numbers are assigned to the field devices so they may be easily identified when ordering and shipping, as well as installing in the plant. The decisions that are made concerning field instrumentation, the assignment of device tags, and piping details are documented using a piping and instrumentation diagram (P&ID). A piping and instrumentation diagram is similar to a process flow diagram in that it includes an illustration of the major equipment. However, the P&ID includes much more detail about the piping associated with the process, to include manually operated blocking valves. It shows the field instrumentation that will be wired into the control system, as well as local pressure, temperature, or level gauges that may be viewed in the field but are not brought into the control system.

As mentioned earlier, the engineering company that is creating the P&ID normally has standards that they follow in the creation of this document. In some cases, the drawing includes an overview of the closed loop and manual control, calculations, and measurements that will be implemented in the control system. However, details on the implementation of these functions within the control system are not shown on the P&ID. Even so, the P&ID contains a significant amount of information and in printed form normally consists of many D size drawings (22 x 34 inches; 559 x 864 mm) or the European equivalent C1 (648 x 917mm). The drawings that make up the P&ID are normally organized by process area, with one or more sheets dedicated to the equipment, instrumentation, and piping for one process area.

Piping and Instrumentation Diagram is drawing that shows the instrumentation and piping details for plant equipment. The P&ID acts as a directory to all field instrumentation and control that will be installed on a process and thus is a key document to the control engineer. Since the instrument tag (tag number) assigned to field devices is shown on this document, the instrument tag associated with, for example, a measurement device or actuator of interest may be quickly found. Also, based on the instrument tags, it is possible to quickly identify the instrumentation and control associated with a piece of equipment. For example, a plant operator may report to maintenance that a valve on a piece of equipment is not functioning correctly. By going to the P&ID the maintenance person can quickly identify the tag assigned to the valve and also learn how the valve is used in the control of the process. Thus, the P&ID plays an important role in the design, installation and day to day maintenance of the control system. It is a key piece of information in terms of understanding what is currently being used in the plant for process control.

pidpid2

2.PFD

To meet market demands, a company may commission an engineering firm to build a new plant or to modify an existing plant to manufacture a product that meets certain specifications and that can be manufactured at a specific cost. Given these basic objectives, a process engineer will select the type of chemical or mechanical processing that best meets the planned production, quality, and efficiency targets. For example, if the equipment is to be used to make more than one product then the process engineer may recommend a batch process. For example, a batch reactor may be used to manufacture various grades of a lubrication additive. Once these basic decisions are made, the process engineer selects the equipment that will most cost-effectively meet the company’s objectives. Based on the production rate, the process engineer selects the size of the processing equipment and determines the necessary connections between the pieces of equipment. The process engineer then documents the design in a process flow diagram (PFD). The process flow diagram typically identifies the major pieces of equipment, the flow paths through the process, and the design operating conditions—that is, the flow rates, pressures, and temperatures at normal operating conditions and the target production rate.

Process flow diagram – Drawing that shows the general process flow between major pieces of equipment of a plant and the expected operating conditions at the target production rate.

pfd 2pfd

A brief explanation of documents can be given as follows:

1.Piping details of instruments

Instrument piping details are generated from SPI hook up module functionality. These gives  details of instruments installed in an equipment or in a pipe.

piping detail2piping details

2.Installation schedule of instruments

These documents are used as the primary instrumentation index and are prepared from SPI software. The time schedule for starting and finishing of a work is graphically said in these diagrams.

instrument schedule

3.Calculation sheets for instruments

These forms can be generated from SPI standard calculation module. The below form gives us details regarding the calculation done to select a particular instrument for a particular process with respect to pipe size, process, area and its application.

calculation sheet

4.Specification sheets for instruments

These forms can be prepared from SPI standard specification sheet module. This document has details regarding instruments tag number, service, P&ID number, make, model, serial number, lower sensor limit, upper sensor limit, material connections, power supply types etc.

specification sheet for instrumentsinstrumentation specification sheet 2

5.Cause and effect diagrams of instruments

A cause and effect drawing is a chart showing ESD or regulatory control system output reaction in response to abnormal input changes, giving details of process alarms, or trip points in response to process parameters or operating conditions. It is required for all permitted modes of plant operation. This does not detail all the logic decisions which takes place and cannot replace the logic diagram. It is arranged in a way that abnormal process conditions result in either shutdown or isolation of process equipments. For instance, if HH level of KO drum is sensed then shut down the compressor drive and close the isolation valve.

cause and effect 2cause and effect3

6.Layout drawings

Control room layout drawings show in plan views, the location of consoles, panels, control racks, computer racks and peripherals, logic racks, termination racks and boxes. Remote building layout drawings show the position of each item of major equipment like process interface building, analyzer house etc. Layout of control room console, panels, cabinets, or local panel serves as a guide for construction but does not provide exact dimensions. Only the overall dimensions, location of instrument items, shape, graphic layout, and general layout are provided in this. Front and back of cabinet/rack layout show dimensions, equipment location, wiring raceway, cable entries and terminal strips.

layout diagram

7.Interconnection wiring diagrams of instruments

Instrument interconnection wiring diagram are prepared for junction box and field control panels, Marshelling cabinets and instrument console/panels, cabinet/racks, junction boxes located in process interface building, substation, control rooms etc.

The main purpose of this drawing is to the individual wiring between devices and to identify the cable numbers, wire tagging, terminal identification, fuses sizes etc. All spare termination details are also shown in these drawings. Some simple wiring diagram are as shown below

wiring diawiring dia 3

8.Process system drawings for equipment

These drawings consists of the control system for opening of closing of valves for controlling level, pressure, temperature, flow and quality of any vessel or system on a large scale. This will have narrative explaining the control of system along with its logic. This is accompanied by control application program related documents. These documents also include smaller scale process system drawings such as analyzer unit. These are generally drawings relate to a system operating in plant like steam and water analysis system drawing as in analyzer panel, TIC- TOC (Total organic content/Total inorganic content) analyzer panel system, water in oil and oil in water analyzer panel etc on a smaller scale.

system drawings

9.Segment diagrams of instruments / General arrangement (GA) drawings

These drawing give us details regarding the cross sectional, top, front and side view of instruments along with its fittings like SS, ground terminals or conduits, HP, LP side in case of DP transmitter, mounting bracket details.

ga.segment2ga.segmentdraw

10.Special drawings

When intrinsically safety is used for protection in hazardous areas a special drawings like system control drawings are made in which both the intrinsically safe apparatus and the associated apparatus are identified by the manufactures, model numbers and entity parameters. Some special drawings are Bentley Nevada VMS drawings, Woodward governor documents, IR compressor module packages etc, BMS for boiler management.

SPECIAL DRAWING 2SPECIAL DRAWING 3SPECIAL DRAWING 4SPECIAL DRAWING 5SPECIAL DRAWING1

11.Architect diagram or System block diagram

These drawings will be having a block diagram format of all major control systems components including routers, switches, gateways, servers, subsystems etc. Some of these drawing also identifies where all these physical components are located in CCR, Substation, Utilities control building. The overall cable wiring details are also provided along with the cable types, speed of communication link, protocol type and redundancy in some of the block diagrams but not every block diagrams. These drawings are generally drawn showing the DCS architecture, including all connected auxiliary systems like PCS, ESD, VMS, Compressor control, F&G, Printers etc.

system block diagram 2system block diagram

12.Logic diagrams

For a PLC or programmable logic controller to work, it must be programmed to do so. The most popular language used for programming a PLC is ladder logic. A simple ladder logic diagram is as shown below.

ladder logic

13.Emergency shutdown system drawing

Details of ESD drawing consist of following documents also contains Cause and effect supporting ESD actions, logic diagrams of ESD control narrative etc. The figure below shows an ESD drawing implemented using functional block diagram. ESD system is to shut down a unit or plant in case of any abnormality occurs in plant which would otherwise cause casualty or accident in a plant or factory.

esd fun dia2esd fun diagr

14.Mounting details/Hook up diagrams

These are also similar to piping details of instrument documents. In piping details, we get piping related documents for instrument locations and mounting styles. In mounting details there is wide perspective of installation techniques involving impulse tubes, mounting brackets, stanchions, flanges, capillary tube, nut-bolts, canopy, equalizing valves etc. These drawings can be generated from SPI hook up module functionality. A hook up diagram format is as shown below

hookup 1hookup 2

15.Decommissioning documents

Decommissioning activities is a very vast topic to be covered. It is beyond the scope of this article. A decommission documents include site evaluation documents; closure considerations like decontamination, waste disposal, soil removal etc; closure tasks and programmes; closure plan validation; closure plan costing etc. Some sample document is as shown below

decom 1decom 2decom 3decom 4decom 5

16.Cable schedule

The cable schedule documents give us a detailed explanation of the cable for laying. For instance PCS signals uses paired cables, ESD signals uses core cables, and FNG uses triad cables. These details along with cable number, cable type, drum number, cable length, vendor, details for cable laying regarding source panel to destination panel are also specified. Some sample cable schedule list as shown below

cable list list report 1cable list list report

17.I/O List

The Input output list gives explanation of the inputs and outputs of ESD, PCS and FNG groups. It gives us details about inputs like PT, FT, LT tag details and outputs like Control valve tag, On/Off valve tags etc. The details included in the I/O list are PID number, loop number, tag number of I/O service, location, type of function whether ESD, PCS or FNG, I/O type whether digital or analog, range, unit, redundancy, category etc. Some sample I/O lists format are as shown below.

I-O list 1I-O list

18.Vendor list and drawings

These lists consist of the vendors who supply the instruments to the client. These vendors provide their instrument details and related documents and drawings which are known to be vendor drawings. The total number of vendors, who are allowed to supply instruments in the project are listed in vendor list and their manuals are considered as vendor drawings. Some sample vendor lists for instrument supply are as shown below

vendor list 1vendor list 2vendor list 3

These authorised vendors are thereby needed to provide the vendor drawings related to their instrument details of each tags and its installation method and its datasheets. A sample vendor drawing for a pressure gauge is as shown below and its specification

vendor drawing 1vendor drawing 2

19.Instrumentation index

An instrument index gives us the total instruments to be installed in a project. It gives us the details regarding the instruments like tag number, instrument type like Pressure transmitter, FT or LT etc, P&ID number, equipment number, scope, location, I/O type, system, category etc. A simple instrument index format is as shown below.

instrument index

20.Loop drawings

The piping and instrumentation diagram identifies, but does not describe in detail, the field instrumentation that is used by the process control system, as well as field devices such as manual blocking valves that are needed in plant operations. Many of the installation details associated with field instrumentation, such as the field devices, measurement elements, wiring, junction block termination, and other installation details are documented using a loop diagram. A loop diagram, also commonly known as a loop sheet, is created for each field device that has been given a unique tag number. The loop diagrams for a process area are normally bound into a book and are used to install and support checkout of newly

installed field devices. After plant commissioning, the loop Diagrams provide the wiring details that a maintenance person needs to find and troubleshoot wiring to the control system.

Loop Diagram – Drawing that shows field device installation details including wiring and the junction box (if one is used) that connects the field device to the control system. The loop diagram typically contains a significant amount of detail. For example, if a junction box is used as an intermediate wiring point, the loop diagram will contain information on the wiring junctions from the field device to the control system.As is illustrated in this example, junction box connections are shown on the line that shows the division between the field and the rack room. The loop diagram shows the termination numbers used in the junction box and the field device and for wiring to the control system input and output cards. Also, the Display and Schematic portions of the loop diagram provide information on how the field input and output are used in the control system.Also, connections are shown between the control system analog output card and an I/P transducer and pneumatic valve actuator. Details such as the 20 psi air supply to the I/P and the 60 psi air supply to the actuator are shown on this drawing. Based on information provided by the loop diagram, we know that the I/P will be calibrated to provide a 3–15 psi signal to the valve actuator. In addition, specific details are provided on the level measurement installation. Since the installation shows sensing lines to the top and bottom of the tank, it becomes clear that the tank is pressurized and that level will be sensed based on the differential pressure.Even fine details such as the manual valve to regulate the flow of purge water are included in the loop diagram to guide the installation and maintenance of the measurement device. The loop diagram provides information that is critical to the installation, checkout, and maintenance of field devices. By examining the loop diagram, it is possible to learn details that may not be obvious when you are touring the plant site. A simple loop drawing format is as shown below.

LOOP DIAGRloop diagram

21.JB Schedule

A JB schedule gives us a detailed description of termination and wiring to be carried out in a junction box. It gives us how is the primary cable coming from Marshelling cabinet is connected to field cables or secondary cables of the respective instruments. Normally the secondary cables are connected to the left side of the terminal block of JB and the primary cables are connected to the right side of the terminal block. A JB schedule details include the number of terminal strips, JB location, colour code of the cables, instrument tag numbers, polarity of the cables, shield cable connection details etc. A simple JB schedule is as shown below.

JB scedule

22.Concept node/ Control narrative

A Concept note explains the ESD logic shown in the logic diagram. This narrative serves as guideline for embedding comments in ladder and logic diagram networks. A process control narrative, or PCN, is a functional statement describing how device-mounted controls, panel mounted controls, PLCs, HMIs, and other processor-based process control system components should be configured and programmed to control and monitor a particular process, process area or facility. PCNs are sometimes referred to as concept node, control strategies, control narratives, sequence descriptions, and by other similar names. A PCN is the essential link between process design and control system design. It also forms an integral part of the final control system documentation, providing in the most concise but descriptive form, a statement that ties together process operation, process equipment, instrumentation, control philosophy, available control modes and control loops, as well as documenting control logic settings such as set points, computed values, alarm limits, normal operating limits, trips, interlocks, and other key parameters. A concept node is as shown below

control narrative 1control narrative 2control narrative 3control narrative 4control narrative 5control narrative 6control narrative 7control narrative 8

23. BOQ or Bill of Quantity.

BOQ or bill of quantity is the quantity or number or amount of materials need to carry out project. Normally 20% extra or spare is requested for carrying out the work in order to compensate for shortage. These BOQ includes number of JB, length of cables, number of instruments, number of instrument fittings, its installation and service cost, cable trays and ducts, canopy and sun shed, angles and plates, SS tubes and all materials related to erection of instruments. It consist of description of material to be purchased or procured, its quantity, its weight or unit, quantity to be procured within a time limit etc. Some simple form of BOQ are as shown below.

BOQ1BOQ2BOQ3

Now we will discuss about various check list used in instrumentation. There are more than 8 check lists for instrumentation. These includes

1.SAT/FAT.

FAT or Factory acceptance test and SAT or Site Acceptance Test are one and same only. The only difference is FAT is executed at vendor test facilities and SAT is carried out at client site. FAT / SAT documents covers all the functional specifications of the equipment as demanded by the client requirements.

Factory Acceptance Tests are done at the factory to make sure that certain requirements are met, which results in high quality products. The tests are normally done with the customer, and also, in certain more demanding cases, with a third party inspection agency.

Although all cabins should be fault-free when they arrive from the subcontractors that assemble them, faults sometimes occur. Therefore these factory acceptance tests are needed.

At a FAT, installations are double checked so that they match the drawings for the specific project. Functions that should work when cabins are installed at site are also simulated to check the automation functionality. All possible faults, deviations and wishes are also noted.Site Acceptance Tests are done at the specific places where commissioning is done. These tests are also done to make sure that certain requirements and a high quality are met amongst client’s projects and to offer customers quality testing and documents. Normally the same test procedures as at FAT are followed, plus procedures that cannot be done at FAT. E.g. breaker control is excluded from FAT but done at SAT. The results of the SAT are noted in the test protocols and then signed by both the customer and the commissioner. A FAT/SAT procedure covers 6 main parts:

a.Hardware,

b.System Software,

c.Human Interface Station Application.

d.Field Control Station Application

e.Safety Control Station Application

f.Field Control Node Application.

These procedures are covered in detail in another topic SAT/FAT procedures and is beyond the scope of this article.

2.Punch point list.

This checklist covers instrument list whose works are to be completion after the erection phase. The list have date, item description, the person who have inspected, action plan for completion of work, whether the job is completed after the issue of punch list, comments regarding the punch list etc.

punch list

3.Inspection report.

The inspection check list is generally is filled by QA and QC instrument engineer to confirm whether individual tag number are installed properly. The list details about the tag number, model, serial number, inspection checks for correct tagging, leak test, wiring, cable tags etc. An inspection checklist for a switch is as shown below.

INSPECTION CHECKLIST

4.Loop check list.

These check list gives us details regarding each loop for transmitters used in an erection. These details about the type of signals like AO, DO, ESD, PCS, FNG etc. It also confirms transmitter display, output and include the results of hot and cold loops performed. These also do have continuity test report regarding the loop. Some loop check reports are as shown below.

LOOP CHECKLIST 1LOOP CHECKLIST 2loop check list

5.Logic checklist.

This checklist gives us data regarding the logic checks performed during commissioning phase and include the details of logics implemented in a control system or start up of a system. These have details regarding instrument tags, its state, alarms, inputs and outputs, how many items are affected during its activation etc.

LOGIC CHECKLIST INPUTLOGIC CHECKLIST OUTPUTlogic check sheet

6.Process graphics checklist.

The HMI or a control station panel will be having graphics for human interface. These graphical icons are tested during commissioning and erection period tag wise. This is done and documented in process graphics tag list. This list has graphic tags, service, its static test result and its dynamic test results during its working. For example the red colour of a control valve indicate it is closed and green colour in its graphic represents closed and yellow colour represents the valve moving condition. These are verified and are documented in a process graphics list. A process graphics checklist is as shown below.

PROCESS GRAPHICS CHECKLSIT

7.Installation check list:

The instrument installation check list is similar to inspection checklist and details whether an instrument is properly installed in a field. A simple installation check list is as shown below

INSTALLATION CHECKLIST

8.Calibration check list

A calibration check list contains the details of calibration check done during its commissioning period for its proper working. The instruments are checked for their various ranges from 0% to its 100% in both increasing and decreasing order. These details include instrument tag, model number serial number, range, test ranges, equipments used for testing, performer and verifier signature etc. These check list is also used for annual maintenance report for carrying out preventive maintenance and corrective maintenance documentation. Simple calibration checklist is as shown below

calibration check listSUMMARY DOCUMENTS

Ultrasonic flow measurement working principle

Ultrasonic flow meters works on the principle of transit-time differential method. Transit time differential is defined as the time difference between the time required for ultrasonic signal to cross the pipeline in one direction and the time taken by the signal in reverse direction. This measuring principle is based on a simple physical fact. Imagine two boats crossing a river diagonally, one with the flow and one against the flow. Naturally the boat that is travelling with the flow will reach the opposite side sooner and the boat that is travelling upstream which is against flow will reach later. Acoustic signals, like ultrasonic waves also behave in a same way.

By using ultrasonic sensors, the transit time of acoustic signals that travel upstream and downstream are measured. The difference in transit time is proportional to the mean flow velocity and is transformed into an output signal by the electronics.

The three measuring beams are generally used for making a three dimensional cross section of the medium that flows through the measuring tube. These measuring lines are positioned in such a way that the influence of the flow profile (laminar or turbulent) is largely reduced. Combined with the use of the latest signal processing techniques like Digital Signal Processing (DSP), a reliable measurement can be obtained. 

The flow velocity measurement of the 3-beam ultrasonic flow meter is based on measurement at three positions in the measuring tube. Two of the acoustic beams are located in symmetrical arrangement on the outside and the third beam is located in the centre of the measuring tube. Each individual acoustic path of measurement forms an angle Ø with the tube centreline. The ultrasonic waves travel from point A to point B at speed.

7

1

Also, from point B to point A at speed

2 

And the transit time taken from point A to B is given by the equation (distance/velocity), here distance is given by L length from point A to B.

3

And the transit time taken from point B to A is given by the equation,

4

 tAB and tBA are measured continuously. The mean flow velocity Vm of the product is calculated using the last two equations.

Mean velocity is calculate by the equation,

56

The popular ultra sonic flow meter is from Krohne UFM 3030.

8optisonic-3400-district-heating

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https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/01/05/units-and-its-conversion/

Specific gravity

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/01/05/specific-gravity-of-selected-liquidsgases-and-saturated-waterfor-different-temperatures/

Instrumentation Interview questions

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/01/03/instrumentation-interview-questions/

Temperature transmitter calibration

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/12/20/temperature-transmitter-calibration/

Pressure transmitter calibration

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/12/19/pressure-transmitter-calibration/

Magnectostrictive LT calibration

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/12/19/magnetostrictive-level-transmitter/

Hazardous area classification

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/12/17/hazardous-area-classification/

Excel short keys

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/12/16/excel-short-keys/

Digital electronics

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/12/14/digital-electronics/

Thermocouple mV conversion chart

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/12/14/thermocouple-temperature-mv-conversion-chart/

Foundation field bus

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/11/20/foundation-fieldbus/

Rosemount 3051 series transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/11/20/rosemount-3051-series-transmitters/

Hydrogen sulphide

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/11/20/hydrogen-sulphide-h2s/

Root cause Analysis

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/11/20/root-cause-analysis/

Shore Key Line up

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/09/28/how-to-line-up-interface-level-transmitter/

pH Analyser

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/09/27/ph-analyzer-working-principle-and-calibration/

Mathematic Formula

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/09/24/important-mathematical-formulas/

India

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/08/15/india/

Oil in Water Analyser

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/08/13/oil-in-water-analyzer/

BSW Analyser

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/08/13/bsw-analyzer/

Capacitive Level Transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/08/12/capacitance-type-level-transmitter/

LRV and URV Level Transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/08/11/lrv-and-urv-of-interface-level-transmitter/

Instrument Loop Diagram

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/07/28/instrument-loop-diagrams/

Laser Level Transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/05/20/laser-level-transmitters/

Turbine Flow Transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/05/20/turbine-flow-meter/

Zero Suppression and Elevation

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/05/18/zero-suppression-and-elevation/

Bently Nevada 3500 VMS

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/04/08/bently-nevada-3500-vms/

Control Valve Servicing

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/04/08/smp-of-a-control-valve/

Safety Integrity Level

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/02/23/safety-integrity-level-sil/

Instrumentation Working Principle

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/02/22/instrumentation-working-principle-continued/

Instrumentation Gland Sizes

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/02/15/instrument-gland-sizes/

LRV and URV of DP level transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/01/02/lrv-and-urv-determination-for-d-p-type-level-transmitter/

Instrumentation working principle continued

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/01/02/instrumenation-working-principle/

Level measurement using Pressure gauge

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/06/10/level-measurement-using-pressure-gauge/

Tips and tricks in field Instrumentation

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/04/18/tips-and-tricks-in-field-instrumentation/

Data Communication Protocol

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/03/10/data-communication-protocols/

Pressure Unit Conversion

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/02/19/pressure-unit-conversion/

Calibration of  GWR level transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/02/19/calibrationtheory-and-initialization-of-gwr-level-transmitter-rosemount-5300-and-ktek-5100/

Control Valves

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/02/18/control-valves/

ERS Level transmitter Parameters

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/02/18/calibration-and-initialization-of-electronic-remote-seal-level-transmitter-rosemount-3051ers/

Calibration of wet leg tube Level transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/01/16/calibration-and-initialization-of-wet-leg-impulse-tube-rosemount-3051cd-series-lt/

Calibration of capillary type Level transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/01/15/calibration-and-initialization-of-rosemount-3051cd-capillary-type-level-transmitter/

mV conversion chart

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2015/02/27/942/

Gulf JOB

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2013/09/18/contact-details-for-gulf-jobs/

Reynolds Number

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2012/11/28/reynolds-number/

Calibration of displacer type LT

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2012/11/16/calibration-procedure-of-displacer-type-level-transmitter/

My profile

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2012/06/20/click-here-then-photo-and-view-profile/

Chemical hazard pictogram

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2012/04/04/chemical-hazard-pictograms/

RTD conversion chart

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2012/02/17/calibration-of-dp-type-transmitter-with-actual-pressure/

Ingress Protection

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2012/01/18/ingress-protection/

To know more about Instrumentation and Control,

https://www.amazon.in/dp/B079TKRY1N?ref_=k4w_oembed_gQxp7c3jhGhlq0&tag=kpembed-20&linkCode=kpd

or

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2012/09/30/basic-instrumentation-and-calibration/

Three element control in a boiler

For safe and efficient boiler operation, a constant level of water in the boiler drum is required to be maintained.

Drum Level Control Systems are used extensively throughout the process industries and the Utilities to control the level of boiling water contained in boiler drums on process plant and help provide a constant supply of steam. If the level is too high, flooding of steam purification equipment can occur. If the level is too low, reduction in efficiency of the treatment and re circulation function. Pressure can also build to dangerous levels.

A drum level control system tightly controls the level whatever the disturbances, level change, increase/decrease of steam demand, feedwater flow variations.

In the process industries, boiling water to make steam is a very important procedure. The control of water level is a major function in this process and it is achieved through a water steam interface established in a cylindrical vessel called the drum which is usually lying on its side and located near the top of the boiler. Providing tight water level control in a drum is accomplished by utilizing one of three types of drum level control: single-element, two-element, or three-element. This article discuss only about 3-element drum level control.

It handles loads exhibiting wide and rapid rates of change. Plants which exhibit load characteristics of this type are those with mixed, continuous, and batch processing demands. It is also recommended where normal load characteristics are fairly steady; but upsets can be sudden, unpredictable and/or a significant portion of the load. In the figure below, the control scheme for three-element drum level control.

4

Steam flow is measured by the steam flow transmitter (FT-1), its signal is fed to the feedwater flow computer (FY-3) after processing through the square root extractor (FY-1). The drum level is measured by the level transmitter (LT-1) and its signal is transmitted to the drum level controller (LC-1). In the drum level controller, the process signal is compared to the drum level set point, where a required corrective output signal to maintain the drum level is produced. This corrective signal is sent to the feedwater flow computer (FY-3). The feedwater flow computer combines the signal from the two variables, and produces an output signal to FIC-2. Feedwater flow is measured by the transmitter (FT-2). The output signal of the feedwater flow transmitter is linearized by the square root extractor, (FY-2). This signal is the process variable to the feedwater controller (FIC-2) and is compared to the output of the feedwater flow computer (FY-3) which acts as set-point. The feedwater flow controller (FIC-2) produces the necessary corrective signal to maintain feedwater flow at its set-point by the adjustment of the feedwater control valve (FCV-1). All of the work necessary to compensate for load change is done by the feed-forward system (i.e. a pound of feedwater change is made for every pound of steam flow change). The drum level portion of the control scheme is used only in a compensating role. Despite low-to-moderate volume/ throughput ratio and a wide operating range, it is expected the drum level will be maintained very close to set-point. Achieving this requires use of the integrating response and reset in both the drum level and feedwater controllers.

FT-1, FT-2 and LT-1 may be the same type of transmitter. Auto/Manual transfer of the feedwater control valve is accomplished via FK-1.This means stocking only one type of transmitter in the case of a transmitter failure. In order to understand this, consider an example as illustrated below. In this case, I have ignored that the flow transmitter is of square root and it is taken as linear. So please ignore the square root extractor in the below explanation for simplicity.

I have also ignored the complex calculation in the controller and flow meter station and controllers regarding error calculation. Also I have considered this to be a proportional controller. Integral and differentiating controllers are considered if the load is varying abruptly, rapidly and over a period of time. Here I am avoiding time variable (integral and differential part) for simplicity of presentation. 

Case 1

Consider the drum level is at a stable level of 30% with feed water flow of 30% of its span or range. Now the load of the steam is stable and is supplying a stable load flow of 30% of its range. Now the control valve is having 30% opening. This is a stable condition and needs no controlling.

1

 Case 2

Consider steam consumption is increased by 20% from 30%. Now the steam flow is 50% as shown in step 1.The level of the steam drum is still 30%. These two values are fed to the FY 3. This feedwater flow computer FY3 uses a summing relay and controller, subtracts the level value 30% (in percentage) from the steam flow value 50% (in percentage) as shown in step 2. Thus 50%-30% gives us a value of 20%. This value of 20% acts as a set point to feedwater flow controller (FIC-2).Also the feed water flow transmitter output FY 2 is having 30%. The feedwater flow controller (FIC-2) uses a summing relay and controller which adds the output from FY2 and FY3. Thus the output of FIC 2 will be 20% + 30% = 50% as in step 3. This 50% acts as a command to the control valve to open 50% as in step 4, thus more feed water enters the steam drum to compensate for the increase in load as in step 5.

That is,

2

Case 3

Consider steam consumption is decreased to 20% from 30% as shown below. Now the steam flow is 20% as shown in step 1.The level of the steam drum is still 30%. These two values are fed to the FY 3. This feedwater flow computer FY3 uses a summing relay and controller which subtracts the level value 30% (in percentage) in percentage from the steam flow value 20% (in percentage) as shown in step 2. Thus 20%-30% gives us a value of -10%. This value of -10% acts as a set point to feedwater flow controller(FIC-2).

Also the feed water flow transmitter output FY 2 is having 30%. The feedwater flow controller (FIC-2) uses a summing relay and controller which adds the output from FY2 and FY3. Thus the output of FIC 2 will be -10% + 30% = 20% as in step 3. This 20% acts as a command to the control valve to close to 20% as in step 4, thus less feed water enters the steam drum to compensate for the decrease in load as in step 5.

3

Thus in every case the level of the steam drum is maintained at a safe level.

Please note that in actual industrial applications the op-amp and micro controller based controller works in an entirely different manner. This article is made simple for getting a basic knowledge of three element control. I have also ignored the integral and differential part of PID controller

Indian Penal Code

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/02/26/indian-penal-code-ipc/

RTD

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/02/27/temperature-transmitter-rtd/

Hook up diagram

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/02/27/instrument-installation-hook-up-diagram/

Calibration of Siemens Sipart PS2

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/02/27/calibration-of-siemens-sipart-ps2/

Calibration of Rosemount TT

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/02/27/calibration-of-temperature-transmitter-zero-trimming/

Control valve sizing equation

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/02/27/control-valve-sizing-equations/

Control valve leakage classification

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/02/27/control-valve-leakage-classification/

Bently Nevada VMS continued

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/02/27/bently-nevada-vms-continued/

Intrinsically safe barrier

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/03/07/intrinsically-safe-barriers/

I/P converter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/03/07/i-p-conveter/

Lapping of a control valve

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/03/07/lapping-of-a-control-valve/

Limit switch

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/03/09/limit-switch/

Dampers

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/03/21/dampers/

Hookup diagram continued

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/06/06/hook-up-diagrams-continued/

Instrumentation related to a motor driven pump

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/06/07/instrumentation-related-to-a-motor-driven-pump/

Flow transmitter DP type

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/07/19/flow-transmitter-dp-type/

Typical foundation fieldbus wiring

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/08/02/a-typical-foundation-field-bus-wiring-diagram/

Painting procedures

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/09/14/painting-procedure/

Instrumentation cable design specification

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/09/15/instrumentation-cable-design-specification/

Standard power supply requirements of instruments

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/09/15/standard-power-supply-requirements-for-instrumentation-devices/

Acceptable ranges of Instruments

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/09/15/acceptable-accuracy-ranges-of-instruments/

Instrumentation general design requirements part 1

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/10/09/general-design-requirements-of-instrumentation-part-1/

Instrumentation general design requirements part 2

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/10/09/general-design-requirements-of-instrumentation-part-2/

Instrumentation general design requirements part 3

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/10/09/general-design-requirements-of-instrumentation-part-3/

Instrumentation general design requirements part 4

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/10/09/general-design-requirements-of-instrumentation-part-4/

Instrumentation general design requirements part 5

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/10/09/general-design-requirements-of-instrumentation-part-5/

AS-i

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2020/02/22/as-i-actuator-sensor-interface-protocol/

Boiler

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2020/03/03/boiler/

Thermistors

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2020/04/05/thermistors/

Profibus

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2020/04/05/profibus/

3 element control

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2020/04/05/three-element-control-in-a-boiler/

Ultrasonic flow measurement

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2020/04/05/ultrasonic-flow-measurement-working-principle/

Parameter setting of  E+H LT

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/04/29/parameter-setting-of-eh-fmp51-gwr-lt/ Siemens LT parameter setting

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/04/29/parameter-setting-of-siemens-probe-lu-ultra-sonic-level-transmitter/

Parameter setting of KTek LT

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/04/29/parameter-setting-of-ktek-mt-5100-gwr-lt/ Analysis of Pump Vibration

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/06/08/analysis-of-motor-pump-vibration/ HART Communication

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/06/17/hart-communication/ Instrumentation tube fittings

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/03/28/instrumentation-tube-fittings/

Radar LT non contact type

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/03/19/radar-non-contact-level-transmitter-working-and-parameters/

Rosemount GWR parameter setting

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/03/15/parameter-setting-of-rosemount-gwr-5300-series-lt/

Offset calculation GWR

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/02/14/offset-calculation-for-a-guided-wave-radar-level-transmitter/

Temperature transmitter types

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/02/13/temperature-transmitter-classification-tree/

Flow transmitter types

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/02/13/flow-transmitter-classification-tree/

Level transmitter types

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/02/13/level-transmitter-classification-tree/

Pressure  transmitter types

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/02/13/pressure-transmitter-classification-tree/

Piping and Instrument diagram

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/02/04/pid/

Smoke detector working

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/02/02/smoke-detector-working-principle/

Conductivity transmitter working

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/02/02/conductivity-transmitters/

Gas detector working

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/02/01/gas-detector-working-point-gas-detector/

Flame detector working

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/02/01/flame-detector-working-principle/

Units and conversion

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/01/05/units-and-its-conversion/

Specific gravity

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/01/05/specific-gravity-of-selected-liquidsgases-and-saturated-waterfor-different-temperatures/

Instrumentation Interview questions

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/01/03/instrumentation-interview-questions/

Temperature transmitter calibration

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/12/20/temperature-transmitter-calibration/

Pressure transmitter calibration

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/12/19/pressure-transmitter-calibration/

Magnectostrictive LT calibration

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/12/19/magnetostrictive-level-transmitter/

Hazardous area classification

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/12/17/hazardous-area-classification/

Excel short keys

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/12/16/excel-short-keys/

Digital electronics

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/12/14/digital-electronics/

Thermocouple mV conversion chart

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/12/14/thermocouple-temperature-mv-conversion-chart/

Foundation field bus

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/11/20/foundation-fieldbus/

Rosemount 3051 series transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/11/20/rosemount-3051-series-transmitters/

Hydrogen sulphide

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/11/20/hydrogen-sulphide-h2s/

Root cause Analysis

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/11/20/root-cause-analysis/

Shore Key Line up

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/09/28/how-to-line-up-interface-level-transmitter/

pH Analyser

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/09/27/ph-analyzer-working-principle-and-calibration/

Mathematic Formula

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/09/24/important-mathematical-formulas/

India

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/08/15/india/

Oil in Water Analyser

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/08/13/oil-in-water-analyzer/

BSW Analyser

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/08/13/bsw-analyzer/

Capacitive Level Transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/08/12/capacitance-type-level-transmitter/

LRV and URV Level Transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/08/11/lrv-and-urv-of-interface-level-transmitter/

Instrument Loop Diagram

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/07/28/instrument-loop-diagrams/

Laser Level Transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/05/20/laser-level-transmitters/

Turbine Flow Transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/05/20/turbine-flow-meter/

Zero Suppression and Elevation

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/05/18/zero-suppression-and-elevation/

Bently Nevada 3500 VMS

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/04/08/bently-nevada-3500-vms/

Control Valve Servicing

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/04/08/smp-of-a-control-valve/

Safety Integrity Level

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/02/23/safety-integrity-level-sil/

Instrumentation Working Principle

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/02/22/instrumentation-working-principle-continued/

Instrumentation Gland Sizes

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/02/15/instrument-gland-sizes/

LRV and URV of DP level transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/01/02/lrv-and-urv-determination-for-d-p-type-level-transmitter/

Instrumentation working principle continued

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/01/02/instrumenation-working-principle/

Level measurement using Pressure gauge

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/06/10/level-measurement-using-pressure-gauge/

Tips and tricks in field Instrumentation

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/04/18/tips-and-tricks-in-field-instrumentation/

Data Communication Protocol

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/03/10/data-communication-protocols/

Pressure Unit Conversion

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/02/19/pressure-unit-conversion/

Calibration of  GWR level transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/02/19/calibrationtheory-and-initialization-of-gwr-level-transmitter-rosemount-5300-and-ktek-5100/

Control Valves

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/02/18/control-valves/

ERS Level transmitter Parameters

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/02/18/calibration-and-initialization-of-electronic-remote-seal-level-transmitter-rosemount-3051ers/

Calibration of wet leg tube Level transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/01/16/calibration-and-initialization-of-wet-leg-impulse-tube-rosemount-3051cd-series-lt/

Calibration of capillary type Level transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/01/15/calibration-and-initialization-of-rosemount-3051cd-capillary-type-level-transmitter/

mV conversion chart

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2015/02/27/942/

Gulf JOB

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2013/09/18/contact-details-for-gulf-jobs/

Reynolds Number

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2012/11/28/reynolds-number/

Calibration of displacer type LT

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2012/11/16/calibration-procedure-of-displacer-type-level-transmitter/

My profile

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2012/06/20/click-here-then-photo-and-view-profile/

Chemical hazard pictogram

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2012/04/04/chemical-hazard-pictograms/

RTD conversion chart

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2012/02/17/calibration-of-dp-type-transmitter-with-actual-pressure/

Ingress Protection

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2012/01/18/ingress-protection/

To know more about Instrumentation and Control,

https://www.amazon.in/dp/B079TKRY1N?ref_=k4w_oembed_gQxp7c3jhGhlq0&tag=kpembed-20&linkCode=kpd

or

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2012/09/30/basic-instrumentation-and-calibration/

Profibus

PROFIBUS is an open, vendor-independent protocol that became part of the international standard organisation model OSI. PROFIBUS links controllers or control systems to several decentralized field devices (sensors and actuators) via a single cable. PROFIBUS is the fieldbus-based automation standard.

For any communication protocol explanation we have to consider OSI (Open System Interconnection) model of ISO, this gives us a general architecture of network specification,

OSI model has 7 layers

1) PHYSICAL LAYER- SAYS ABOUT ELECTRICAL CONNECTIONS

2) DATA LAYER SAYS ABOUT DATA TRANSFER FOR ADJACENT NETWORK

3) NETWORK LAYER SAYS ABOUT ENCAPSULATION OF DATA INTO PACKETS FOR TRANSMISSIONS AND RECEPTION

4) TRANSPORT LAYER SAYS ABOUT DATA HANDLING OVER ENTIRE NETWORK

5) SESSION LAYER SAYS DATA ORGANIZING, START AND END OF SPECIFIC TRANSMISSION

6) PRESENTATION LAYER DEFINES CHARACTER SETS AND CONTROL AND GRAPHIC CONTROLS.

7) APPLICATION/SOFTWARE LAYER SAYS ABOUT ACTUAL SOFTWARE PROGRAMS.

Pd nt spa

The profibus uses three layers namely Layer 1, 2 and 7 as in foundation fieldbus.

Profibus can use foundation fieldbus, RS 485 or fibre optic or AS-i RF/IF radio frequency communication, Ethernet or TCP/IP for communication depending on the complexity of network. For simple case profibus can be set up using AS-i protocol. For lesser number of masters profibus use RS 485 protocol and for multiple master communications, uses Ethernet or TCP/IP. In that case profibus will be replaced by a higher level of communication technique known as Profinet.

Communication methods are Master slave, multi master slave or Publisher subscriber method, FF uses Manchester encoding techniques.

In other words in physical layer it uses RS 485 or fibre optic or AS-i RF/IF radio frequency communication.

1

Let me explain layer by layer

Layer 1 tell us about how data is “transmitted” by slaves or corresponding transmission technology

Layer 2 tells us how “communication” is taking place between masters or corresponding communication technology

Layer 7 tells us what the applications of profibus are like software

First thing to remember is pro“fibus” is a communication technique similar to “fieldbus”.

Whereas its profi “net” is a more enhanced version of profibus and works as a sophisticated communication technique similar to “ethernet” which can incorporate all communication technique as shown below.

2

3

There are different profibus versions depending on applications layer 7 like:

 Profibus PA (Process Automation) for process automation

Profibus DP (Decentralized periphery as in DCS) for factory automation

Profidrive (like VMS vibration monitoring system) for motion and motor-pump- machinery related systems

Profisafe for safety and ESD (Emergency Shutdown system) related systems etc

LAYER 1

Layer 1 tells us about how data is “transmitted” by slaves or corresponding transmission technology. Profibus is almost compatible with any communication protocol like RS 485, Optic fibre, MBP (Manchester coded bus powered as in FF), wireless communication, HART, AS-i model etc, but most commonly used technology is MBP, RS 485 and optic fibre.

RS485

RS 485 transmission is the transmission technology most frequently used by PROFIBUS. The application area includes all areas in which high transmission speed and simple, inexpensive installation is required. Twisted pair shielded copper cable with one conductor pair is used. The RS 485 transmission technology is easy to handle. All devices are connected in a bus structure (i.e. line). Up to 32 stations (master or slaves) can be connected in one segment. The bus is terminated by an active bus terminator at the beginning and end of each segment as shown below.

4

 To ensure error-free operation, both bus terminators must always be powered. The bus terminator can usually be switched in the devices or in the bus terminator connectors.

In the case of more than 32 users, or to enlarge the area of the network, repeaters (line amplifiers) must be used to link up the individual bus segments. 

FF(Foundation Fieldbus):

Transmission as per MBP and MBP-IS (Manchester coded bus powered- Intrinsically Safe) is used in FF

The transmission medium is a shielded, twisted pair cable. The signal is transmitted Manchester-coded at 31.25 kbps. In general, the data line is also used to supply power to the field devices. The main advantage of this technology is that it can be used in hazardous area and; bus, star and tree topology can be used for transmission.

Optic Fibre

Fiber optic conductors may be used in PROFIBUS for applications in environments with very high electromagnetic interference, for electrical isolation or to increase the maximum network distance for high transmission speeds. PROFIBUS segments using fiber-optic technology are designed using either a star or a ring structure.

Different topologies used in profibus are like linear, star, ring, tree, etc depending on the transmission techniques used. For example if RS 485 is used then line or linear topology is used. But here we use profibus DP,

5

 If MBP (FF) is used we can use line or tree topology may be used and if optic fibre transmission technique is used then

line, star, ring and tree topology may be used. Apart from that Profibus PA can be configured as trunk, star, trunk and spur, ring topologies as shown below

6

7

8

9

 Profibus DP allows master slave data exchange also. Thus it is evident that profibus support a versatile topology to be applied. Furthermore we can notice that profibus utilizes foundation fieldbus trunk-spur technology communication technique.

The most commonly used network components of profibus are similar to that of FF namely: 

Master control device

It is the controller which controls the data between input and output devices and also processes the data for various functions.

Power supply

Power supply offers power (with redundancy) and communication on the same twisted pair cable. Higher voltage allows longer cable and higher current allows more devices. 

Coupler

PROFIBUS PA segments are attached to the PROFIBUS DP backbone through some sort of coupler or link. A number of companies supply such kind of equipment with different technical features and designations:

“PROFIBUS DP/PA Segment coupler”

“PROFIBUS DP/PA Link”

“PROFIBUS DP/PA linking device” 

Repeater

Repeaters are devices that repeat an electrical signal thereby returning it to its full strength but introducing a delay in the signal. It acts like an amplifier for long transmission of signals. Repeaters extend the total length of a network and the number of devices on the network. Repeaters are mainly used in DP-networks with their daisy chain topology to allow more devices connected to the network. In PA-networks, a Coupler with a new PA-segment can be added in case of an overloaded segment and to add more devices

Junction box

Junction boxes (also fieldbus coupler, field barrier, multi barrier) are used to connect spur lines to the trunk and offer numerous special features that vary between models and manufacturers. Junction boxes and field barriers are used in networks to connect trunks (main line) to spurs.

Installed on an easy accessible location of the plant,

mounted in a cabinet to protect against humidity and dust,

and are coupled to the trunk which either terminates or continues to the next junction box. Spurs to the field devices are applied in the box. Electronics provides functional protection (e.g. short-cut at the spur) and explosion protection (e.g. intrinsically safe)

Trunk

Trunk is the main cable which runs along the entire segment. It is similar to a trunk of a tree which supports all branches. This reduces the cable laying cost as only one main trunk cable is used for communication as in FF.

Spur

A spur is a wire connecting field devices to the main trunk line. All spur lines come from the junction box. 

Field devices

The field device the end measuring instrument used in the process. The process variable collected by the field device are transmitted on the bus for use in the controlling the overall process.

Terminator

Every segment requires two terminators to operate properly. The terminators are equivalent to 1micro F and 100 ohm resistance in series. The terminators serve as shunt for field bus current and protect against reflections or noise signals.  A typical profibus model is as shown below.

9a

LAYER 2:

Profibus device communicate using the profibus DP communication protocol and is the same for all the application and allows

Cyclical communication,

Acyclical communication and

Functional Block Diagram communication. 

A brief explanation is as below:

Cyclical Communication

The core of the communication is master-slave method where a master (PLC, PC or control system) cyclically asks the connected slaves (field device, I/O, drives) to exchange data. The respective slave answers the master with a response message. A bus cycle comes to an end once all the slaves have polled in order.

Also there can be more than one Master in a profibus system, in that case the access authorization passes from one Master to another using token passing principle.

The functions of profibus DP communication protocol are distributed over 3 performance levels

DP-V0

This version includes cyclic data exchange between PLC and slave device

9b

Acyclic communication:

 In addition to this acyclic communication can also take place.

DP-V1

This version supplements the V0 version with additional acyclic communication such as parameterization, operation, monitoring and alarm handling.

9c

DP-V2

This has additional features as an extension to V1 like data exchange broadcast as in Publisher /Subscriber broadcast as in foundation fieldbus communication, uploading downloading, redundancy, cycle synchronizing and time stamping.

Functional block diagram communication

There is also a method apart from cyclic and acyclic communication method and is known as Standardized Functional Block communication.

Functional block performs an important role when using cross manufacture application profiles. This contains complex functions of field devices in encapsulated form, thus functioning as representative of corresponding field devices placed in control program. This uses simpler programming languages like Ladder diagram, Functional block diagram, Instruction list etc.

The Profibus devices are classified into 3 types based on their functions:

Profibus DP Master (Class 1)

This is a master which uses cyclic communication to exchange process data with associated slaves. This type of device is integrated in a memory programmable controller or an automation station.

Profibus DP Master (Class 2)

This initially was used as Profibus system commissioning; gradually this is used for setting device parameter via acyclical communication

Profibus Slave

This is a passive communication node which reacts to master by sending a response message.

Layer 7 Application layer

This is the layer is called a software layer or application layer and details about the blocks being used as software for integration of different parts or blocks.

To ensure good interaction between the bus nodes of an automation solution, the basic functions and services of the nodes must match. This means that they have to speak the “same language” and use the same concepts and data formats. This is achieved by the use of same profiles related to device families and specific industry sector.

The different application layer used in conjunction with Profibus is

HART on profibus:

This describes the integration of HART devices in profibus systems. The “Profibus profile HART” offers an open solution for this. It defines the use of communication mechanism without changes to protocol and services of Profibus. Profile of profibus is implemented in the Master and Slave which enable the mapping of the client server model of HART on Profibus. The HART client application is integrated in a profibus Master and the HART Master in a Profibus slave. Thus the latter serves as a multiplexer and takes over the communication with HART devices. 

PA Devices:

This application defines the properties of process automation devices on Profibus. This is the basis for using the Profibus in process automation. This application is also characterized by frequently intrinsically safe operation and device power supply via the bus cable. This software defines the functions and parameters for process control devices such as transmitters, actuators, valves and analysers. These functions and parameters are used to adapt the devices to the respective application and process conditions. These are based on functional blocks and the parameters are classified as input, output and internal parameters. This application also provides a status providing information about the quality of value and possible limit violations. 

PROFIDrive:

This application describes the device behaviour and access behaviour to data for variable speed electric drives on Profibus. This is used in production automation. It defines the automation behaviour, the access method and the data formats for the drive data of the electrical drives on Profibus, from simple frequency converters to highly dynamic servo controllers. 

Profisafe:

This application describes the safe communication of safety related device with safety controllers via Profibus. Safety related automation technology which reduces the risk of human injury, damage to production systems and environment harm is used in every industrial processes. This demand is also satisfied by the fieldbus technology and the Profisafe communication profile serves this purpose for Profibus.

Apart from this, there are various other application software for various purposes like Dosing, encoder, Fluid Power, Identsytems, LabDevices, LiquidPumps, LowVoltage Switchgears, Remote I/O, SEMI, Identification&Maintenace, iParserver, Redundancy, Timestamp etc.

The advantage of PROFIBUS is that, it allows incorporating field devices and controlling system from different manufactures in one plant which causes different types of user interfaces. Such device integration is performed by mapping the device functionality to operating software together with consistent data retention and identical data structures for all devices. Various device integration technologies have been developed and are used on the market like:

1.General Station Description (GSD)

GSD is a mandatory textual description of any PROFIBUS field device. It is used for field device integration into the master. It is also used for cyclic data exchange of data. The defined file format permits the configuration system to simply read in the GSD files of any PROFIBUS device and automatically use this information when configuring the bus system. 

 2.Electronic Device Description (EDD) 

It is used in addition to a GSD to textually describe application related functionalities and parameter of complex field device. It is also used to allow exchange of additional information with the master for e.g. diagnosis or asset management. 

3.Device Type Manager (DTM) and Field Device Tool (FDT) interface.

It is a software-based method of device integration. A DTM is a field device related software component. A DTM communicates with the engineering system in a “Frame application” via the FDT-interface.

 4.FDI

FDI is a new field device integration technology which combines best elements of both EDD and FDT/DTM.FDI has been developed by FDI Corporation LLC (FDT Group, Fieldcomm Group, Profibus & Profinet International, and OPC Foundation).

A detailed explanation of the above is beyond the scope of this article.Wait for my next article on profinet, a high level communication, which incorporates profibus and other communication protocols.

Indian Penal Code

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/02/26/indian-penal-code-ipc/

RTD

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/02/27/temperature-transmitter-rtd/

Hook up diagram

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/02/27/instrument-installation-hook-up-diagram/

Calibration of Siemens Sipart PS2

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/02/27/calibration-of-siemens-sipart-ps2/

Calibration of Rosemount TT

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/02/27/calibration-of-temperature-transmitter-zero-trimming/

Control valve sizing equation

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/02/27/control-valve-sizing-equations/

Control valve leakage classification

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/02/27/control-valve-leakage-classification/

Bently Nevada VMS continued

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/02/27/bently-nevada-vms-continued/

Intrinsically safe barrier

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/03/07/intrinsically-safe-barriers/

I/P converter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/03/07/i-p-conveter/

Lapping of a control valve

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/03/07/lapping-of-a-control-valve/

Limit switch

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/03/09/limit-switch/

Dampers

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/03/21/dampers/

Hookup diagram continued

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/06/06/hook-up-diagrams-continued/

Instrumentation related to a motor driven pump

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/06/07/instrumentation-related-to-a-motor-driven-pump/

Flow transmitter DP type

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/07/19/flow-transmitter-dp-type/

Typical foundation fieldbus wiring

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/08/02/a-typical-foundation-field-bus-wiring-diagram/

Painting procedures

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/09/14/painting-procedure/

Instrumentation cable design specification

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/09/15/instrumentation-cable-design-specification/

Standard power supply requirements of instruments

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/09/15/standard-power-supply-requirements-for-instrumentation-devices/

Acceptable ranges of Instruments

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/09/15/acceptable-accuracy-ranges-of-instruments/

Instrumentation general design requirements part 1

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/10/09/general-design-requirements-of-instrumentation-part-1/

Instrumentation general design requirements part 2

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/10/09/general-design-requirements-of-instrumentation-part-2/

Instrumentation general design requirements part 3

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/10/09/general-design-requirements-of-instrumentation-part-3/

Instrumentation general design requirements part 4

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/10/09/general-design-requirements-of-instrumentation-part-4/

Instrumentation general design requirements part 5

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/10/09/general-design-requirements-of-instrumentation-part-5/

AS-i

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2020/02/22/as-i-actuator-sensor-interface-protocol/

Boiler

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2020/03/03/boiler/

Thermistors

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2020/04/05/thermistors/

Profibus

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2020/04/05/profibus/

3 element control

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2020/04/05/three-element-control-in-a-boiler/

Ultrasonic flow measurement

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2020/04/05/ultrasonic-flow-measurement-working-principle/

Parameter setting of  E+H LT

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/04/29/parameter-setting-of-eh-fmp51-gwr-lt/ Siemens LT parameter setting

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/04/29/parameter-setting-of-siemens-probe-lu-ultra-sonic-level-transmitter/

Parameter setting of KTek LT

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/04/29/parameter-setting-of-ktek-mt-5100-gwr-lt/ Analysis of Pump Vibration

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/06/08/analysis-of-motor-pump-vibration/ HART Communication

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/06/17/hart-communication/ Instrumentation tube fittings

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/03/28/instrumentation-tube-fittings/

Radar LT non contact type

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/03/19/radar-non-contact-level-transmitter-working-and-parameters/

Rosemount GWR parameter setting

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/03/15/parameter-setting-of-rosemount-gwr-5300-series-lt/

Offset calculation GWR

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/02/14/offset-calculation-for-a-guided-wave-radar-level-transmitter/

Temperature transmitter types

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/02/13/temperature-transmitter-classification-tree/

Flow transmitter types

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/02/13/flow-transmitter-classification-tree/

Level transmitter types

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/02/13/level-transmitter-classification-tree/

Pressure  transmitter types

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/02/13/pressure-transmitter-classification-tree/

Piping and Instrument diagram

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/02/04/pid/

Smoke detector working

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/02/02/smoke-detector-working-principle/

Conductivity transmitter working

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/02/02/conductivity-transmitters/

Gas detector working

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/02/01/gas-detector-working-point-gas-detector/

Flame detector working

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/02/01/flame-detector-working-principle/

Units and conversion

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/01/05/units-and-its-conversion/

Specific gravity

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/01/05/specific-gravity-of-selected-liquidsgases-and-saturated-waterfor-different-temperatures/

Instrumentation Interview questions

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/01/03/instrumentation-interview-questions/

Temperature transmitter calibration

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/12/20/temperature-transmitter-calibration/

Pressure transmitter calibration

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/12/19/pressure-transmitter-calibration/

Magnectostrictive LT calibration

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/12/19/magnetostrictive-level-transmitter/

Hazardous area classification

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/12/17/hazardous-area-classification/

Excel short keys

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/12/16/excel-short-keys/

Digital electronics

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/12/14/digital-electronics/

Thermocouple mV conversion chart

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/12/14/thermocouple-temperature-mv-conversion-chart/

Foundation field bus

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/11/20/foundation-fieldbus/

Rosemount 3051 series transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/11/20/rosemount-3051-series-transmitters/

Hydrogen sulphide

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/11/20/hydrogen-sulphide-h2s/

Root cause Analysis

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/11/20/root-cause-analysis/

Shore Key Line up

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/09/28/how-to-line-up-interface-level-transmitter/

pH Analyser

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/09/27/ph-analyzer-working-principle-and-calibration/

Mathematic Formula

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/09/24/important-mathematical-formulas/

India

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/08/15/india/

Oil in Water Analyser

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/08/13/oil-in-water-analyzer/

BSW Analyser

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/08/13/bsw-analyzer/

Capacitive Level Transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/08/12/capacitance-type-level-transmitter/

LRV and URV Level Transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/08/11/lrv-and-urv-of-interface-level-transmitter/

Instrument Loop Diagram

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/07/28/instrument-loop-diagrams/

Laser Level Transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/05/20/laser-level-transmitters/

Turbine Flow Transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/05/20/turbine-flow-meter/

Zero Suppression and Elevation

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/05/18/zero-suppression-and-elevation/

Bently Nevada 3500 VMS

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/04/08/bently-nevada-3500-vms/

Control Valve Servicing

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/04/08/smp-of-a-control-valve/

Safety Integrity Level

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/02/23/safety-integrity-level-sil/

Instrumentation Working Principle

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/02/22/instrumentation-working-principle-continued/

Instrumentation Gland Sizes

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/02/15/instrument-gland-sizes/

LRV and URV of DP level transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/01/02/lrv-and-urv-determination-for-d-p-type-level-transmitter/

Instrumentation working principle continued

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/01/02/instrumenation-working-principle/

Level measurement using Pressure gauge

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/06/10/level-measurement-using-pressure-gauge/

Tips and tricks in field Instrumentation

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/04/18/tips-and-tricks-in-field-instrumentation/

Data Communication Protocol

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/03/10/data-communication-protocols/

Pressure Unit Conversion

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/02/19/pressure-unit-conversion/

Calibration of  GWR level transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/02/19/calibrationtheory-and-initialization-of-gwr-level-transmitter-rosemount-5300-and-ktek-5100/

Control Valves

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/02/18/control-valves/

ERS Level transmitter Parameters

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/02/18/calibration-and-initialization-of-electronic-remote-seal-level-transmitter-rosemount-3051ers/

Calibration of wet leg tube Level transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/01/16/calibration-and-initialization-of-wet-leg-impulse-tube-rosemount-3051cd-series-lt/

Calibration of capillary type Level transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/01/15/calibration-and-initialization-of-rosemount-3051cd-capillary-type-level-transmitter/

mV conversion chart

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2015/02/27/942/

Gulf JOB

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2013/09/18/contact-details-for-gulf-jobs/

Reynolds Number

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2012/11/28/reynolds-number/

Calibration of displacer type LT

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2012/11/16/calibration-procedure-of-displacer-type-level-transmitter/

My profile

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2012/06/20/click-here-then-photo-and-view-profile/

Chemical hazard pictogram

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2012/04/04/chemical-hazard-pictograms/

RTD conversion chart

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2012/02/17/calibration-of-dp-type-transmitter-with-actual-pressure/

Ingress Protection

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2012/01/18/ingress-protection/

To know more about Instrumentation and Control,

https://www.amazon.in/dp/B079TKRY1N?ref_=k4w_oembed_gQxp7c3jhGhlq0&tag=kpembed-20&linkCode=kpd

or

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2012/09/30/basic-instrumentation-and-calibration/

 

Thermistors

Thermistors are thermally sensitive resistors and have either a negative temperature coefficient (NTC) or positive temperature coefficient (PTC) which means, in NTC as temperature increases, resistance decreases; and in PTC as temperature increases as temperature increases resistance increases.

Thermistors term is a combination of temperature and resistor.

Thermistors are made from metallic oxides. Thermistors are easy to use and less costly. Thermistors exhibit non linear characteristics.

NTC thermistors are made from metal oxides like specific mixtures of pure oxides of nickel, manganese, copper, cobalt, tin, uranium, zinc, iron, magnesium, titanium, and other metals where as PTC are made from semiconductor like silicon (silistors) or barium, lead, and strontium titanates with the addition of yttrium, manganese, tantalum, and silica. The negative exponential function that best describes the resistance-temperature (R(T)) characteristic of an NTC is given by Steinhart-Hart equation:

1

Where T is the absolute temperature in Kelvin and R the thermistor resistance at temperature T.

The graph is as shown below

2

Thermistors have the desirable characteristics of small size,narrow spans, fast response (their time constant can be under 1 s), and a very high sensitivity (about 2%/°F [4%/°C]), which usually increases as the measured temperature drops. Thermistors do not need cold junction compensation because their resistance is a function of absolute temperature, and errors due to contact or lead-wire resistance are insignificant because of their relatively small values. Unlike RTDs and TCs, they are well suited for remote temperature sensing. Thermistors are available in a great variety of configurations, are inexpensive, are not affected by polarity, and their stability increases with age. At present, they are typically more rugged and better able to support mechanical and thermal shock and vibration than other temperature sensors.They are the most sensitive differential temperature detectors available.

34

Indian Penal Code

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/02/26/indian-penal-code-ipc/

RTD

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/02/27/temperature-transmitter-rtd/

Hook up diagram

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/02/27/instrument-installation-hook-up-diagram/

Calibration of Siemens Sipart PS2

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/02/27/calibration-of-siemens-sipart-ps2/

Calibration of Rosemount TT

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/02/27/calibration-of-temperature-transmitter-zero-trimming/

Control valve sizing equation

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/02/27/control-valve-sizing-equations/

Control valve leakage classification

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/02/27/control-valve-leakage-classification/

Bently Nevada VMS continued

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/02/27/bently-nevada-vms-continued/

Intrinsically safe barrier

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/03/07/intrinsically-safe-barriers/

I/P converter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/03/07/i-p-conveter/

Lapping of a control valve

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/03/07/lapping-of-a-control-valve/

Limit switch

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/03/09/limit-switch/

Dampers

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/03/21/dampers/

Hookup diagram continued

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/06/06/hook-up-diagrams-continued/

Instrumentation related to a motor driven pump

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/06/07/instrumentation-related-to-a-motor-driven-pump/

Flow transmitter DP type

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/07/19/flow-transmitter-dp-type/

Typical foundation fieldbus wiring

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/08/02/a-typical-foundation-field-bus-wiring-diagram/

Painting procedures

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/09/14/painting-procedure/

Instrumentation cable design specification

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/09/15/instrumentation-cable-design-specification/

Standard power supply requirements of instruments

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/09/15/standard-power-supply-requirements-for-instrumentation-devices/

Acceptable ranges of Instruments

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/09/15/acceptable-accuracy-ranges-of-instruments/

Instrumentation general design requirements part 1

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/10/09/general-design-requirements-of-instrumentation-part-1/

Instrumentation general design requirements part 2

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/10/09/general-design-requirements-of-instrumentation-part-2/

Instrumentation general design requirements part 3

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/10/09/general-design-requirements-of-instrumentation-part-3/

Instrumentation general design requirements part 4

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/10/09/general-design-requirements-of-instrumentation-part-4/

Instrumentation general design requirements part 5

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/10/09/general-design-requirements-of-instrumentation-part-5/

AS-i

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2020/02/22/as-i-actuator-sensor-interface-protocol/

Boiler

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2020/03/03/boiler/

Thermistors

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2020/04/05/thermistors/

Profibus

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2020/04/05/profibus/

3 element control

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2020/04/05/three-element-control-in-a-boiler/

Ultrasonic flow measurement

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2020/04/05/ultrasonic-flow-measurement-working-principle/

Parameter setting of  E+H LT

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/04/29/parameter-setting-of-eh-fmp51-gwr-lt/ Siemens LT parameter setting

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/04/29/parameter-setting-of-siemens-probe-lu-ultra-sonic-level-transmitter/

Parameter setting of KTek LT

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/04/29/parameter-setting-of-ktek-mt-5100-gwr-lt/ Analysis of Pump Vibration

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/06/08/analysis-of-motor-pump-vibration/ HART Communication

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/06/17/hart-communication/ Instrumentation tube fittings

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/03/28/instrumentation-tube-fittings/

Radar LT non contact type

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/03/19/radar-non-contact-level-transmitter-working-and-parameters/

Rosemount GWR parameter setting

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/03/15/parameter-setting-of-rosemount-gwr-5300-series-lt/

Offset calculation GWR

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/02/14/offset-calculation-for-a-guided-wave-radar-level-transmitter/

Temperature transmitter types

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/02/13/temperature-transmitter-classification-tree/

Flow transmitter types

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/02/13/flow-transmitter-classification-tree/

Level transmitter types

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/02/13/level-transmitter-classification-tree/

Pressure  transmitter types

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/02/13/pressure-transmitter-classification-tree/

Piping and Instrument diagram

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/02/04/pid/

Smoke detector working

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/02/02/smoke-detector-working-principle/

Conductivity transmitter working

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/02/02/conductivity-transmitters/

Gas detector working

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/02/01/gas-detector-working-point-gas-detector/

Flame detector working

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/02/01/flame-detector-working-principle/

Units and conversion

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/01/05/units-and-its-conversion/

Specific gravity

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/01/05/specific-gravity-of-selected-liquidsgases-and-saturated-waterfor-different-temperatures/

Instrumentation Interview questions

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/01/03/instrumentation-interview-questions/

Temperature transmitter calibration

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/12/20/temperature-transmitter-calibration/

Pressure transmitter calibration

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/12/19/pressure-transmitter-calibration/

Magnectostrictive LT calibration

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/12/19/magnetostrictive-level-transmitter/

Hazardous area classification

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/12/17/hazardous-area-classification/

Excel short keys

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/12/16/excel-short-keys/

Digital electronics

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/12/14/digital-electronics/

Thermocouple mV conversion chart

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/12/14/thermocouple-temperature-mv-conversion-chart/

Foundation field bus

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/11/20/foundation-fieldbus/

Rosemount 3051 series transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/11/20/rosemount-3051-series-transmitters/

Hydrogen sulphide

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/11/20/hydrogen-sulphide-h2s/

Root cause Analysis

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/11/20/root-cause-analysis/

Shore Key Line up

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/09/28/how-to-line-up-interface-level-transmitter/

pH Analyser

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/09/27/ph-analyzer-working-principle-and-calibration/

Mathematic Formula

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/09/24/important-mathematical-formulas/

India

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/08/15/india/

Oil in Water Analyser

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/08/13/oil-in-water-analyzer/

BSW Analyser

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/08/13/bsw-analyzer/

Capacitive Level Transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/08/12/capacitance-type-level-transmitter/

LRV and URV Level Transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/08/11/lrv-and-urv-of-interface-level-transmitter/

Instrument Loop Diagram

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/07/28/instrument-loop-diagrams/

Laser Level Transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/05/20/laser-level-transmitters/

Turbine Flow Transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/05/20/turbine-flow-meter/

Zero Suppression and Elevation

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/05/18/zero-suppression-and-elevation/

Bently Nevada 3500 VMS

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/04/08/bently-nevada-3500-vms/

Control Valve Servicing

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/04/08/smp-of-a-control-valve/

Safety Integrity Level

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/02/23/safety-integrity-level-sil/

Instrumentation Working Principle

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/02/22/instrumentation-working-principle-continued/

Instrumentation Gland Sizes

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/02/15/instrument-gland-sizes/

LRV and URV of DP level transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/01/02/lrv-and-urv-determination-for-d-p-type-level-transmitter/

Instrumentation working principle continued

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/01/02/instrumenation-working-principle/

Level measurement using Pressure gauge

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/06/10/level-measurement-using-pressure-gauge/

Tips and tricks in field Instrumentation

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/04/18/tips-and-tricks-in-field-instrumentation/

Data Communication Protocol

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/03/10/data-communication-protocols/

Pressure Unit Conversion

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/02/19/pressure-unit-conversion/

Calibration of  GWR level transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/02/19/calibrationtheory-and-initialization-of-gwr-level-transmitter-rosemount-5300-and-ktek-5100/

Control Valves

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/02/18/control-valves/

ERS Level transmitter Parameters

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/02/18/calibration-and-initialization-of-electronic-remote-seal-level-transmitter-rosemount-3051ers/

Calibration of wet leg tube Level transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/01/16/calibration-and-initialization-of-wet-leg-impulse-tube-rosemount-3051cd-series-lt/

Calibration of capillary type Level transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/01/15/calibration-and-initialization-of-rosemount-3051cd-capillary-type-level-transmitter/

mV conversion chart

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2015/02/27/942/

Gulf JOB

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2013/09/18/contact-details-for-gulf-jobs/

Reynolds Number

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2012/11/28/reynolds-number/

Calibration of displacer type LT

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2012/11/16/calibration-procedure-of-displacer-type-level-transmitter/

My profile

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2012/06/20/click-here-then-photo-and-view-profile/

Chemical hazard pictogram

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2012/04/04/chemical-hazard-pictograms/

RTD conversion chart

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2012/02/17/calibration-of-dp-type-transmitter-with-actual-pressure/

Ingress Protection

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2012/01/18/ingress-protection/

To know more about Instrumentation and Control,

https://www.amazon.in/dp/B079TKRY1N?ref_=k4w_oembed_gQxp7c3jhGhlq0&tag=kpembed-20&linkCode=kpd

or

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2012/09/30/basic-instrumentation-and-calibration/

Boiler

BOILER

The boiler is divided into a ’furnace’ section and a ’second pass’ by a division membrane wall. The furnace section is made of tube walls and a refractory wall. The furnace comprises the furnace side-wall, roof, floor & rear walls and the front refractory wall. The furnace side, roof and floor, rear walls are of membrane panel construction. The furnace front wall is of refractory construction. The second pass comprises the Super heater, convection bank tubes. The second pass is enclosed by the rear wall & boiler side-wall. Entire array of tubes in the furnace & second pass is connected to the steam and water drums. The Super heater is designed for convective heat transfer and is fully drainable. Feed water from plant is admitted to the economizer through a feed water control station. The feed water is then led to the steam drum. Steam is generated in the convection bank tubes. In the riser tubes partial evaporation takes place due to the heating. The resulting water-steam mixture returns to the steam drum where the separation of steam from water takes place. The saturated steam is led to the Superheater and then through the main steam stop valve to the process plant. Combustion of the fuel takes place in the furnace with the help of the burners mounted on the furnace front refractory wall. Combustion air is sucked from the plant environment by the FD fan. The burners are capable of firing Associated Gas, Diesel Oil safely and efficiently. Flue gases generated from combustion pass through the convection bank and are led to economizer through flue gas duct and finally into the atmosphere through steel stack. Two burners have been provided on the furnace front wall in two elevations for burning fuel oil. The starting, stopping and safe shutdown of the burner are monitored by a PLC based Burner Management System (BMS). DCS based controllers are provided by contractor for the control loops. The operation of the boiler is envisaged from the DCS operator stations. Three long-retractable & three rotary soot blowers are provided in the super heaters, boiler bank and Economizer surfaces, when the burners are in service. Soot blowing is done to keep up the heat transfer efficiency at the maximum level. Safety valves have been provided in the Drum and in the main steam line of the Boiler. Suitable

insulation around the drum, the membrane panels, steam lines, feed water lines, hot air and flue ducts have been provided to minimize heat loss and for Operators safety. Pressure, Temperature, Level transmitters, conductivity, pH, oxygen analyzers etc., for local indication as well as input to the DCS has been provided. Microprocessor based automatic (as well as manual) control of Drum level, combustion, steam temperature etc., has been provided. Operation of the boiler as well as Data Acquisition has been envisaged through the DCS.

A boiler’s function can be simply understood as mentioned below

“It is a process of conversion of water to steam by burning a fuel inside the boiler burner to produce fire. The produced steam is thus used to rotate a turbine.”

For a fire to take place we need fuel, heat and oxygen as per fire triangle.

The fuel trains (1st section) supplies a fuel like diesel, methane gas or biogas etc.

The air and flue gas (2nd section) gives the air supply for the fire.

Burner (3rd section) has an igniter which acts as heat for the fire to take place.

The fire in this burner is maintained for the required time and is used to convert the water in boiler to dry steam. Thus high temperature steam is produced in the steam and water section (4th section).

This high temperature steam is passed to specially designed High Pressure, Intermediate Pressure and Low Pressure blades of the turbine and rotates the turbine (5th section) which produces electricity.

The final dosing section is used to inject different chemical for removing corrosion, air from water etc for chemical treatment of different section.

The boiler sections can be classified as follows:

1.FUEL TRAINS SECTION

2.AIR AND FLUE GAS SECTION

3.BURNER SECTION

4.STEAM AND WATER SECTION

5.TURBINE SECTION

6.DOSING SECTION

“FAB-STD”

1.FUEL TRAINS SECTION

This sub-section describes the burners installed in the boiler and also the fuel lines with their valves and instruments for burner light up, monitoring, control and shut down.

 

(supply, piping, BMS Local panel, operational control)

a.Fuel Gas, Oil & Pilot Gas Supply Pipe to the Burner

b.Burner Front Piping

c.Burner Management System (BMS)

d.Local Burner Panel

e.Operational Control.

 

a.Fuel Gas, Oil & Pilot Gas Supply Pipe to the Burner

The gas is obtained from the plant gas VRU unit or supplied from outside govt organisation or gas vendors. Fuel gas flow control station is used to control the fuel gas. The fuel gas flow control station consists of a pneumatic operated spring opposed globe type control valve with isolation valves. A bypass self acting pressure control completes the flow control station. The bypass control valve is for maintaining the minimum pressure required for start-up of the burner. The start-up pressure control signal is obtained from pressure transmitter.

 

Fuel oil supply

 

In case the fuel gas is found to be insufficient or gas station encounters a problem, there will be a diesel oil tank which acts as a spare to supply the necessary fuel to the burner. Fuel oil is supplied using a flow oil control station: The fuel oil flow control station consists of a pneumatic operated spring opposed globe type control valve. The control valve is provided with isolation valves. A bypass self acting pressure control valve completes the flow control station. The bypass control valve is for maintaining the minimum pressure required for start-up of the burner. The start-up pressure control signal is obtained from pressure transmitter. 

 Pilot Gas Supply 

Pilot gas for the igniter torch is taken from the natural gas supply piping during initial start up of burner ignition using diesel oil (fuel oil supply specified above). An additional NRV is also provided in Pilot line in tandem with main fuel line connection tapping in order to isolate the pilot line when main fuel shall be used as pilot fuel instead of LPG

Atomizing Steam and Air Supply

 Atomizing steam is obtained from the steam drum (4750 kPa (g) through an isolating valve which provides the air supply required for the burning of fuel. 

b.Burner Front Piping 

The burner front piping involves the piping that connects the fuel oil, pilot gas and combustion air to the burner. The major components include the safety shut off valves, damper. They are described below.

The fuel gas burner front piping is provided with the following

  • Isolation valve

  • Block & bleed arrangement for burner safety shut off valves

  • Two-safety block shut off valves are provided with a vent shut off valve in between them. This arrangement of two shutoff valves and an intermediate vent valve is called a block & bleed arrangement. All the shut off valves are connected to the BMS and interlocked for safe operation of the burner.

  • Pressure indicator for local indication of the fuel gas pressure.

  • Flexible hose connects the front piping to the burner.

 

The Diesel Oil burner front piping is provided with the following –

  • Isolation valve

  • One shut off valve cum ramp up valve is provided. This valve is connected to the BMS and interlocked for safe operation of the burner. This valve is having the BMS interlock with a function block for ramp up of burner for smooth light up.

  • A manual three way valve is provided after shut off valve

from which two lines are connected to main and auxiliary gun of burner. A three way valve is having limit switches to indicate the open position in BMS whether main gun or auxiliary gun is in line for running burner.

  • The limit switches for main gun and auxiliary gun are provided to indicate the inserted position of main gun and auxiliary gun respectively.

  • An interlock for main and aux. gun is provided in such a way that, for light up of burner with recommended main gun, a three way valve limit switch , main gun inserted limit switch and atomizing media three way valve limit switch feedback should be available.

  • The auxiliary gun can be fired in the event of chocking of main gun by ensuring auxiliary gun at inserted position with

availability of atomizing media at auxiliary gun and by placing the three way control valve towards auxiliary gun.

  • Pressure indicator for local indication of the fuel gas pressure.

  • Flexible hose connects the front piping to the burner.

 The Atomizing Steam burner front piping is provided with the following –

  • Isolation Valve

  • A Shut off valve with limit switches and interlocks with BMS.

  • A minimum flow orifice as bypass.

  • A NRV to restrict the back flow.

  • A three way valve with limit switches to indicate the position (Main gun or Aux gun is provided).

  • Pressure gauges for Main gun and Auxiliary gun are provided.

  • Flexible hose connects the front piping to the burner.

  • A tapping is routed to main gun and auxiliary gun from first isolation valve for gun clearing purpose with isolation valves.

 The pilot gas front piping is provided with the following –

  • Isolation valve

  • Block & bleed arrangement for pilot gas burner safety shut off valves – Two-safety block shut off valves are provided with a bleed shut off valve in between them.

This arrangement is similar to that of the main burner. All the shut off valves are connected to the BMS and interlocked for safe operation of the pilot burner.

  • Pressure indicator for local indication of the pilot gas pressure

  • Flexible hose connects the front piping to the burner

The burner is provided with a damper on its combustion air side. This is used for isolating the burner air side during non-operation of an individual burner. The damper is provided with a position feedback arrangement on it

Open and close positions and interlocked to the BMS.

1

figure- boiler fuel supply

c.Burner Management System (B.M.S) 

The Burner Management System (B.M.S) is a programmable logic controller (PLC) that controls the permissive for burner start, stop and trip functions. The PLC acquires the status from the field instruments. The PLC and its hardware are installed in independent PLC panel. The PLC system consists of a CPU, power supply unit, I/O modules & communication modules. The BMS PLC is provided for the burner safety interlocks/ monitoring of related shutoff valves & alarm generation. The burners can be started / stopped either from local burner panel Installed on the operating platform near the burners or from the DCS operating station placed in control room. The local burner panel is provided with necessary lamps and push buttons for operation & Indications. PLC is provided with necessary software and hardware for communicating with DCS. 

d.Local Burner Panel 

The following indicating lamps / push buttons are provided on the local panel.

Emergency stop

Lamp test

Furnace purge start

Diesel burner start

Gas burner start

Diesel burner stop

Gas burner stop

Reset

Main interlock satisfied

Pre interlock satisfied

Diesel ready to start

Gas ready to start

Pilot on

Diesel firing on

Gas firing on

Furnace purge required

Furnace purge ready to start

Furnace purge running

Furnace purge finished

FD fan running.

e.Operational Control

A brief overview of operational control points is

described below. The under mentioned factors contribute towards good combustion.

Correct fuel gas to combustion air ratio. The combustion control must be fine tuned not only during commissioning but also once every six months, by checking the flame and analyzing the flue gas at economizer exit for O2, CO & CO2.

The local operator must be encouraged to view the flame in the boiler two or three times in a shift and report for any irregularity. As the spark device, gas nozzle and UV flame scanners must be maintained in good condition by following the vendor instructions. The scanner cooling air must be continued at least for eight hours after a boiler shut down to shield the scanner from the boiler heat.For the safety of the equipment (and personnel) protections envisaged in BMS must not be by-passed. Any malfunction of protections or nuisance trips must be analyzed and corrective actions initiated.

Possible fire risks in handling pressurized and heated fuel gas must be recognized. To avoid accidents the following are suggested –

  • Fuel gas lines and valves must be accessible.

  • Gas leakage, if any, noticed must be promptly attended.

  • Portable fire fighting equipment in working condition should be readily available at an accessible location.

2.AIR AND FLUE

The air and flue gas system covered in this sub-section describes the supply of combustion air to the boiler and forcing of the flue gas through the boiler to the stack. The components that form part of the system are

a.FD fan

 

b.Air duct

 

c.Wind box

 

d.Furnace

 

e.Flue ducts

 

f.Chimney

 

a.FD fan

The FD fan supplies combustion air to the burners. FD fan is of centrifugal type, with aerofoil backward curved blades. FD fan is equipped with motor drive, driven by an electrical motor.

 b.Air duct 

The FD fan is provided with a suction duct for sucking the combustion air from the plant environment. FD fan Discharge Duct connects the FD fan with wind box 

c.Wind box 

The air duct terminates in the wind box. Burners are accommodated in the wind box. Wind box facilitates proper air distribution around the burners. The other functions of wind box are

Combustion Air Flow Control

Oxygen Trimming

Excess Air Adjustment 

d.Furnace 

The construction of the furnace is such that a totally gas sealed enclosure suitable for forced draft operation is available. The furnace floor tubes are covered with refractory bricks to maintain natural circulation of water inside the tubes. The base frame supports the entire boiler. The base frame anchored to the concrete foundation. The base frame anchors the water drum at front side so that during operation the Boiler is allowed to expand vertically upwards and on rear side.

e.Flue ducts 

Flue gases which are generated after combustion of fuel in the furnace; pass through the convection bank tubes in the second pass to the economizer and then to stack. Flue ducts are provided to connect the boiler to the economizer and the economizer to the stack.

f.Chimney 

 The stack exhausts the flue gases from the economizer to the atmosphere. The stack is a cylindrical steel chimney fabricated out of carbon steel plates.

2

figure-boiler air and flue gas system.

 

3.BURNER

 

The main parts of burner are

a.Front plate

b.Air Register assembly

c.Sleeve

d. Swirler

e.Gas chamber and spuds

f.Fuel oil atomizer (gun) assembly

g.Igniter

h.Flame scanners

i.peep hole / view ports

34567figure-burner details

 

a.Front plate 

The front plate forms the structural attachment basis of the burner components. Front plate is mounted directly to the windbox front face by frames with series of equi-spaced bolts along four sides of the front plate. 

b.Air Register assembly 

The air register consists of a series of vanes arranged circumferentially in the air passage from the wind box to the oil gun, axially surrounding the impeller of the gun. The air register vanes provide a (rotary) swirling motion to the combustion air, which it imparts to the mist of atomized fuel oil being sprayed by the oil gun, enabling the air and the oil mist to mix intimately for quick and complete combustion. Air registers are not to be used for control of air quantity to the burners. (Air quantity adjustments are only by varying the FD fan output). 

c.Sleeve

Burner sleeve makes the air distribution and balancing across the cross section of the burner. The design assures equal air distribution and acceleration of air to the required velocity for complete mixing with fuel. Air from windbox enters into the burner through para flow damper, is then accelerated to a velocity in multiple of the windbox velocity and also diverted axially into the burner. The converging cone of sleeve further accelerates the air and also distributes it equally across the cross section.

d. Swirler

 Air passing through the swirler is referred to as primary air, which gets further accelerated due to the pressure drop across swirler. The primary air is imparted with a swirl, which is a function of the swirler blade angle. This additional acceleration and swirling gives the air the strength to penetrate and mix with the fuel. The air distributed around the swirler is termed as secondary air. The secondary air provides the oxygen for complete combustion process. 

e.Gas chamber and spuds 

Fuel gas is introduced through eight equally spaced gas spuds located in the secondary air annulus. Gas for the spuds is introduced through the gas chamber mounted on the burner front plate. The gas spuds are drilled with injection orifices, properly sized to provide the correct velocity to the exiting gas. In addition, the spuds are angled such that the gas is directed for improved mixing with air to give proper flame shape and minimum emissions.

f.Fuel oil atomizer (gun) assembly

The gun uses the energy of expanding steam to atomize the fuel oil, that is to divide the oil into very fine particles for spray as a mist, for complete mixing with air for easy combustion. The fuel oil gun is composed of two concentric pipes to lead steam and oil up to the atomizer. Atomizer comprises of mixing chamber and sprayer cap. Fuel Oil flows through the inner pipe and reaches to the atomizer at the end. Steam/Air, which flows outside the inner tube, enters the atomizer through tangential slots in the mixing chamber of the atomizer, mixes with oil and atomizes it.

 g.Igniter 

Igniter is a gas (pilot gas/LPG) fired lighter with an electric sparking device, which produces a pilot flame to light the fuel air mixture of the main fuel. Establishing the pilot flame and sensing it by a scanner is a pre-requisite for admission of main fuel to the burner. The Igniter consists of a gas nozzle to admit pilot gas to a combustion chamber where the gas mixes with the combustion air. The gas nozzle is connected to the pilot gas supply line. A spark device is an electrode with 3-mm gap fitted on an insulator. The electrode is connected to a High – tension transformer in the burner local control box through an H.T. cable. The sequence of operations for placing in service the igniter of a burner is controlled by BMS.

 h.Flame scanners.

Each Burner is provided with two flame scanners (One Ultra Violet (UV) flame scanner & another one is Infrared flame scanner) in the scanner view pipes for continuous monitoring of the flame and provide an input to BMS. The ‘detector’/ UV cell of the scanner is a sealed, gas filled, ultra-violet transmitting envelope containing two  electrodes, connected to an A.C. voltage. The detector is aligned to view the flame whereas IR flame scanner is based on photon transistor. When the flame is there the UV rays/radiation striking the electrodes makes the gas between the electrodes conductive and a current flow from one electrode to the other in the form of pulses. Number of pulses emitted per second are characteristic of the flame and differs from other radiation (for example from the hot refractories) striking the scanner. The pulses are amplified and compared with a pre-set value to detect the presence of flame.

 In general IR flame scanner justify presence of oil flame as it is having more infrared spectrum in its flame front whereas UV flame scanner justify the gas flame.

 i.Peep hole / view ports

The Burners are provided with peepholes with an inner glass shield and a tiltable outer cover on burner front plate to monitor the flame by operator during burner start up / running. The burner peepholes are used to the view the flame for carrying out adjustments

Fassgfifp

 

4.STEAM FROM WATER

a. Deaerator

b.Boiler feed water pumps and control station

c.Economizer

d.Boiler assembly

e.Super Heater

f. Attemperator

g.Main steam piping

h.Operational Control

i.Sample System.

A brief explanation is below

a. Deaerator

Deaeration removes the corrosive gases such as dissolved oxygen and free carbon dioxide from the boiler feed water. This ensures protection of the feed water lines, steam lines, boiler tubes and other pressure parts of the boiler against corrosion and pitting, saves costly boiler re-tubing and expensive plant shutdowns. Further as the temperature of feed water is raised from ambient to Deaerator operating temperature of 130 °C [which corresponds to the operating pressure of 169 kPa (g) ] and then fed to boilers, the overall boiler thermal efficiency also increases. Deaeration is done by heating the feed water with steam. Vigorously scrubbing the water with this steam removes the last traces of non-condensable gases and brings down well below the recommended level in feed water.

8

figure-boiler deaerator

b.Boiler feed water pump and control station 

These pumps are connected from the deaerator outlet piping, providing necessary suction to the pump at exit of de-aerator. This ensures that during the operation of the pump there will always be a minimum flow across the pump even when there is no discharge into the boiler.

Feed water is supplied continuously to maintain normal water level in the steam drum. The Feed water Control station installed in the feed water line modulates the water flow to maintain the level in steam drum. Water flows from the flow control station through the economizer before entering into steam drum.

 c.Economizer

A continuous finned tube economizer is located on the flue gas duct from the boiler to recover economically feasible heat from the flue gas before discharging to the atmosphere. The recovered heat increases the temperature of feed water entering the steam drum. The direction of feed water flow (inside the tubes) and flue gas (outside the tubes) are opposed cross flow for optimum heat transfer. Flue gas flows vertically through the Economizer. During operation, feed water from control station outlet flows to the economizer inlet header and through the coils absorbing heat from the flue gas. Then it flows into the steam drum from the outlet header.

 d.Boiler assembly. 

The boiler is of bi-drum construction. Upper drum of the boiler is the steam drum and the lower drum is the water drum All the boiler tubes are connected to these two drums except the rear wall panel tubes, which are connected to the steam drum through riser pipes and through down comers to the water drum. The tubes enter the drums radially and have been expanded mechanically inside. The tubes support the steam drum, whereas water drum rests on the saddle supports. The boiler is divided into a furnace section & a second pass by a baffle wall made of membrane panel. The flue gases that are generated from combustion in the furnace, pass to the second pass through screen tubes at the rear side. Heat transfer takes place in furnace by radiation and in second pass by convection. Furnace is formed with the furnace side, roof & floor wall made out of single membrane panel and at rear it has flat studded wall construction. In the second pass, the superheater and the convection bank tubes are located. In between the baffle wall and the studded boiler sidewall the superheater and convection bank are accommodated. Combustion products (flue gas) from the furnace pass over the superheater and then to the convection bank tubes. The flue gas exits the boiler at the front of the boiler sidewall. Steam drum receives feedwater from the economizer. A perforated feed pipe inside the steam drum distributes feedwater across the length. Water flows to the water drum through portion of the convection bank tubes, which are not baffled at steam drum from the water level, acting as down comer tubes. Boiler tubes absorb the heat from combustion and convert water into water-steam mixture and this conversion keep the tubes cool, within their safe permissible operating temperature. Steam drum receives steam-water mixture from the furnace tubes, rear wall tubes and a portion of the convection bank tubes after evaporation. This mixture is routed to the cyclone separators through the baffles inside the steam drum. The mixture flows tangentially through the cyclone separators. While flowing through the cyclones, water that is heavier gets separated from steam and tickle down to mix with the water in the steam drum. Steam rises upward to flow through the scrubbers provided at the top of the steam drum. Scrubbers provide a tortuous path to the Steam and during this passage; last traces of water are stripped out from steam. Saturated dry steam collects at the saturation chamber above the scrubber and then passes to the superheater through the steam supply pipes to increase the temperature of steam.

9

figure-boiler steam water production

e.Super Heater 

Saturated steam from the steam drum flows to the superheater assembly to increase the steam temperature. Saturated steam from the steam drum internals flows through the supply pipes to the superheater primary header, from where it is distributed to other superheater tubes. Superheater tubes are placed in between the Superheater primary (inlet) and outlet headers. The headers are baffled to form multiple passes for effective heat pickup to attain the desired steam temperature. In order to maintain the final steam temperature a spray type attemperator is installed in-between the passes. Superheater is placed at the flue gas entry of Boiler second pass. Continuous and sufficient flow of the steam through the Superheater ensures the metal temperature of the coils does not exceed the design value. Superheater headers are provided with drains, which are connected to the blowdown tank through the drain header. Superheater has to be drained before starting the boiler and after shutdown to remove the condensate. Superheated steam from superheater final header flows to the main steam line.

9a

figure-superheater boiler steam water section

f. Attemperator 

An inter-stage attemperator is provided in the superheater to maintain the final steam temperature. Spraying a controlled quantity of feedwater into the superheated team lowers its temperature as it loses some heat in vaporizing the sprayed water. The attemperator is a header, which accommodates an inner sleeve shaped like a venturi. A spray nozzle is fixed at the entrance to the restricted venturi section. The sleeve is held in position firmly by the locating pins welded to the header at the steam entry side.

The sleeve is free to expand at the steam exit side. Water is sprayed through the spray nozzle. The steam passes through the venturi picks up the spray, which completes the evaporation and thoroughly mixes the steam. The connection of the inlet to the spray nozzle embodies a thermal sleeve construction to protect the steam line from temperature differential between the spray water and the steam. A drain connection is provided at the exit of the attemperator. 

g.Main steam piping 

The main steam line connects the steam outlet from super heater to the plant steam main at the terminal point main steam stop valve.

 h.Operational Control 

A brief overview of operational control points is described below

Steam drum control

  • Maintain feedwater, boiler water quality, and chemical concentration as prescribed.

  • Maintain water level in the steam drum within permissible low and high levels. The protection system envisages boiler trip at very low levels, which should not be bypassed.

 i.Sample System

The sample system includes the sample cooler and the associated analyzers and the cooling water sub-system There are four sample coolers provided in the boiler to get Saturation steam, boiler feed water, drum sample and main steam sample. One sample cooler is provided for drum water sample emerging out from the continuous blow down line. Sample cooler two is provided for the superheated steam sample from main steam line. Sample cooler three is provided saturation steam before steam entering in to superheater. Sample cooler four is provided to feed water line sample water before entering in to drum

 5.TURBINE ROTATION

A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam, and converts it into rotary motion. It modern protocol was invented by Charles Parsons in 1884.

Principle of operation is

“Steam at high pressure and temperature expands through nozzles forming high velocity jets”

9b

figure-steam nozzle

Many such nozzles are mounted on inner wall of cylinder or stator casing. The rotor of the turbine has blades fitted around in circular array. Steam jet from static nozzles impinges and imparts its momentum on to rotor blades

This makes the rotor to rotate. A set of one array of stator and rotor blade is called a ‘stage’. Number of stages is arranged one after another and thus thermodynamic energy is converted into kinetic energy. Number of rows of static and rotating blades (stages) produces the requisite torque.

9c

figure-turbine flow diagram

Major Constructional features of a Turbine include:

 a.Cylinders (HP, IP, LP) and their assembly

b.Steam admission valves and interconnecting pipes

c.Gland Sealing Arrangements

d.Bearings Thrusts and their lubrication system

e.Expansion, locking and guide

f.Barring arrangements

g.Governing system.

a.Cylinders (HP, IP, LP) and their assembly. 

Large steam turbines have many number of stages very high pressure & temperature of inlet steam, large volume expansion of steam. Therefore instead of single turbine cylinder, multiple turbines are used. Steam flow cascade from one turbine cylinder to another arranged in series &/or parallel. Depending on inlet pressure of these multiple turbine cylinders, they are termed as HP (High pressure), IP (Intermediate pressure), and LP (Low pressure).

9d9efigure- turbine sections

Above is a sectional view of turbine. The HP, IP and LP turbines are as shown below

9f9g9h

figure: hp-ip-lp turbine

The rotor Turbine rotors are machined out of a single steel forging.Grooves are similarly machined to mount rotor blades

 Rotors are additionally featured with dummy piston, gland, bearing journal and coupling flange.

9i9j

 

figure turbine rotor.

b.Steam admission valves and interconnecting pipes

Pipes carrying steam from the boiler arrives at the “steam chest” near to the turbine. Steam Chest is a thick walled casing divided into compartments that house the emergency stop valve and governor valves. Steam chests and are also fitted with strainers to trap objects that may be swiped by steam into the turbine. Outlet pipes from Governor Valves enter into the turbine emergency stop valve and Governor valves are powered to open hydraulically against spring force. The hydraulic systems can be of low pressure or high pressure types. Hydraulic pressure derived from pumping arrangement of lubricating oil is usually low pressure type of system. High pressure systems have separate pumping units independent of lubricating system and can use special fire resistant fluid instead of hydraulic oil. High pressure systems are lesser in size and faster in action compared to low pressure version. Outlet pipes from Governor valves enter into the turbine

Entry of steam into the turbine can be controlled by two basic means

A) Throttle Control

B) Nozzle Control

Schematic arrangements of throttle and nozzle governing are shown in Figure 1 & 2 shown below.

9k

fig-throttle nozzle governing

 

c.Gland Sealing Arrangements 

Either ends of rotor shaft that come out from stator need such seals. Both the stator and rotor have typical arrangements known as ‘glands’. Conditioned Steam provides excellent sealing medium in modern turbines, while some old turbines use this in combination to carbon glands. The glands of HP IP & LP differ from one another in construction.

 d.Bearings Thrusts and their lubrication system. 

Comprises of pumps that pressurize oil & supply to bearing Shaft bearing

– Return oil from the bearings is collected back to the sump

– Usually the pumping system includes, pressure control feature, filters and coolers.

Each of the turbine shaft is supported on either ends by journal bearings and are forced lubricated by low viscous oil

  • The oil is filtered to remove solid particles and centrifuged to remove any water

  • In turbines where two shafts are rigidly coupled the common coupled end can be supported by single bearing

  • A journal bearing consists of two half-cylinders that enclose the shaft

  • They are internally lined with Babbitt, a metal alloy usually consisting of tin, copper and antimony.

9m

figure-bearing lubricating system.

e.Expansion, locking and guide 

  • Heating and cooling takes place in a turbine during start-up, shutdown and load changes

  • Relative expansion and contraction also take place between various parts.

  • Guides and keys are designed to accommodate the movement of cylinder, shaft due to thermal changes

  • While doing so the relative alignment has to be maintained

  • f.Barring arrangements 

Once a running turbine is shut down, the shaft speed starts to “coast down” and it comes to a complete stop. Heat inside a turbine at stationary condition concentrate in the top half of the casing. Hence the top half portion of the shaft becomes hotter than the bottom half. If the turbine shaft is allowed to remain in one position for a long time it tends to deflect or bend. The shaft warps or bends only by millionths of inches, detectable by eccentricity meters. But this small amount of shaft deflection would be enough to cause vibrations and damage the entire steam turbine unit when it is restarted. Therefore, the shaft is not permitted to come to a complete stop by a mechanism known as “turning gear” or “barring gear” that takes over to rotate the shaft at a preset low speed. The barring gear must be kept in service until the temperatures of the casings and bearings are sufficiently low. There are various drive systems to achieve this slow rotation, powered by electric or hydraulic motors.

 g.Governing system.

Governors are associated with all Turbo Generators to control the working fluid entering the prime-mover. The fluid can vary from water (for hydel plants) to steam (for thermal) or fuel (for Gas Turbine).The basic control elements are valves capable of controlling the required quantum accurately. Functioning of governor is basically to interpret signals and power of the valves accordingly. The mechanism has developed from very simple arrangement to a complicated system to meet ever growing needs.

There can be two situations envisaged in understanding the basics of Governors.

a) Single Machine Operation: Under this condition one turbo-generator supplies to a group of load connected to it

b) Parallel operation of Turbo-generators: In this case two or more parallel connected turbo-generator supplies a common Load.

9l

figure-turbine operation type

SINGLE TG OPERATION

A Turbo Generator operating under a steady load condition is assumed to possess:

– Fixed speed (say synchronous speed of Alternator)

– Fixed governor valve opening that admits exact amount of fluid to produce the connected power.

– The state remains in equilibrium if not disturbed

If the equilibrium is disturbed by increment of load from the previous state then:

– The TG will try to meet the excess load demand from its storage of rotational kinetic energy

– The speed of turbine will therefore decelerate.

 Similarly if there is a decrease of connected load then

– The TG will have additional prime moving power to add up to its storage of rotational kinetic energy

– The net effect will be acceleration of TG speed

Either of these situations is unstable and not desirable for the machine and its connected load. Governors are intended to keep the speed of TG at a steady level by regulating the flow into the prime-mover under the aforesaid conditions.

A simple arrangement of valve control is shown in the figure below

In response to falling speed (i.e. higher load) the fly-balls drop down that opens valve via lever arm to admit more fluid. The additional fluid flow copes with increased demand and retains speed (Vice-verse happens under rising speed).The basic components that accomplish the process are:

a.Speed variation sensor (Fly ball)

b.Control function (Linear movement in proportion to change in ‘rpm’)

c.Actuator drive (Lever arm that powers the movement of valve)

d. Final control element (The valve that regulate flow).

9nfigure-simple governor

From this simple device it is evident that corresponding to every position of fly-ball the control valve has a definite opening.

The two aspects in the process can be interpreted as 

– The position of fly-ball to represent speed of TG

– The opening of control valve to represent steam flow & TG loading

Relationship that exists between these two parameters, known as “Governor Characteristic” is shown in the plot.

9ograph

The regulation characteristic is drooping in nature (i.e. the valve close with rise in speed) that ensures a stable operating point. Every governor has its intrinsic droop character that decides the extent of speed change that can bring about a 100% load change. This is usually expressed as change of frequency as the percentage of rated frequency.

[The co-ordinates characteristic can also be otherwise, viz, speed (x) vs. load (y)]

9p

graph-load vs. rpm

Governing of modern high capacity steam turbines are scaled up version of the simple governing system, but principles are same:

-Speed sensors pick up signals from: Fly balls, Oil pressures, Voltage, Digital Pulses (etc)

-Control function can be obtained from: mechanical or hydraulic arrangements, analog or digital computers

-Actuator drive is mostly: hydraulic drives with mechanical or electronic coordination

-Final control element constitute of steam admission valves.

-Mechanical arrangements has been reliably used to detect speed

-‘Speed’ can be translated into hydraulic signal (relay oil pressure) to control governor valve opening and load thereby

-Change of relay oil pressure is small and is incapable of overcoming large forces of spring / ‘steam pressure’ and move the valves

-The pilot plunger and main valve piston acts as a hydraulic amplifier that operate the steam admission valves

-The basic governing is also provided with some additional features such as:

– Over-speed protecting system known as ‘over-speed Governor’ (in the scheme shown centrifugal action on slight ‘off-centric bolt’ operate a plunger at set speed)

– The hydraulic oil is used in various steps as control oil each assigned to a definite purpose

– ‘Trip oil’ is one such that enables governing only when the system oil pressure is available

– Trip plunger both for ‘over-speed’ and ‘manual trip’ need to be reset for development of pressure

9q

figure-over speed governor

  • Speed can also be sensed as oil pressure (H∞N2) developed by an impeller rotating at shaft speed

  • Governors of modern power plants also incorporate various load limiting functions that arises out of process parameters, such as

– Load restriction due to any shortcoming/ de-rating

– Load restriction due to pressure fall

– Load restriction due to vacuum fall

9r

figure-pressure, vacuum, load governor

PARALLEL TG OPERATION 

  • When a number of Turbo Generators run in parallel the notion of speed governing has no relevance individually

  • All the sets collectively respond to rise or fall of frequency by shutting or opening their governor valves respectively

  • The extent of load change take that place in ideal case is in according to the governor characteristic of individual TG sets

  • Turbo-generators connected to an infinite grid have lot more control inputs other than speed.

(Total connected load is very large compared to TG rating)

  • The simple arrangement depicts how a governor picks up after a load-drop due to frequency rise

– With the rise in frequency the fly-balls move out pulling the sleeve back and uncovering the oil port

– As more oil gets drained the relay oil pressure falls, so does the load

– The port can be arranged to move back into the sleeve that will restore the previous opening as well as load

9s

figure-governor parallel TG

6.DOSING

Chemical dosing system consists of chemical dosing tank with two pumps with motorized agitator interconnecting piping, valves and mountings. The complete assembly is mounted on the skid. Chemical dosing system is required to maintain feed & boiler water quality at desirable levels.

 a.Phosphate Dosing System 

During the boiler operation the impurities in the boiler water keep on getting concentrated. If the boiler feed water is hard the concentration of such chemicals may cause formation & deposition of scales on boiler heat transfer surfaces, which is dangerous. The chemicals dosed (tri sodium phosphate-TSP), react and form insoluble compounds, which prevent scale formation and aid in removal of existing scales. 

b.Amine Dosing System (pH Dosing System) 

Amine dosing is required continuously to keep feed water quantity as per recommended parameters. Feed water pH may reduce due to mixing of condensate at deaerator. In order to boost the pH of feed water, 2.5% concentrated solution of cyclohexyl amine to be prepared for continuous dosing to make up water line to de-aerator vapor tank. Dosing pump stroke are set to get required pH. 

c. O2 Scavenging System (LP) 

Removal of dissolved oxygen/gases from boiler feed water is essential. Presence of dissolve gases can cause corrosion and pitting of feed water lines, steam line or condensate lines, boiler tubes and other pressure parts resulting in prematured failure of pressure parts or other expensive plant shut down. Sodium sulphite (catalyzed or non-catalyzed) or hydrazine is to be used for oxygen removal from boiler feed water. The major amount of dissolved oxygen is removed in deaerator by mechanical deaeration. The remaining traces of oxygen are removed by reacting with chemical (sodium sulphite or hydrazine).

9t9u

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Instrumentation general design requirements part 2

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Instrumentation general design requirements part 3

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Instrumentation general design requirements part 4

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Thermistors

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Profibus

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Units and conversion

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Specific gravity

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Excel short keys

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/12/16/excel-short-keys/

Digital electronics

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/12/14/digital-electronics/

Thermocouple mV conversion chart

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/12/14/thermocouple-temperature-mv-conversion-chart/

Foundation field bus

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/11/20/foundation-fieldbus/

Rosemount 3051 series transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/11/20/rosemount-3051-series-transmitters/

Hydrogen sulphide

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/11/20/hydrogen-sulphide-h2s/

Root cause Analysis

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/11/20/root-cause-analysis/

Shore Key Line up

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/09/28/how-to-line-up-interface-level-transmitter/

pH Analyser

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/09/27/ph-analyzer-working-principle-and-calibration/

Mathematic Formula

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/09/24/important-mathematical-formulas/

India

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/08/15/india/

Oil in Water Analyser

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/08/13/oil-in-water-analyzer/

BSW Analyser

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/08/13/bsw-analyzer/

Capacitive Level Transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/08/12/capacitance-type-level-transmitter/

LRV and URV Level Transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/08/11/lrv-and-urv-of-interface-level-transmitter/

Instrument Loop Diagram

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/07/28/instrument-loop-diagrams/

Laser Level Transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/05/20/laser-level-transmitters/

Turbine Flow Transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/05/20/turbine-flow-meter/

Zero Suppression and Elevation

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/05/18/zero-suppression-and-elevation/

Bently Nevada 3500 VMS

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/04/08/bently-nevada-3500-vms/

Control Valve Servicing

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/04/08/smp-of-a-control-valve/

Safety Integrity Level

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/02/23/safety-integrity-level-sil/

Instrumentation Working Principle

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/02/22/instrumentation-working-principle-continued/

Instrumentation Gland Sizes

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/02/15/instrument-gland-sizes/

LRV and URV of DP level transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/01/02/lrv-and-urv-determination-for-d-p-type-level-transmitter/

Instrumentation working principle continued

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/01/02/instrumenation-working-principle/

Level measurement using Pressure gauge

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/06/10/level-measurement-using-pressure-gauge/

Tips and tricks in field Instrumentation

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/04/18/tips-and-tricks-in-field-instrumentation/

Data Communication Protocol

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/03/10/data-communication-protocols/

Pressure Unit Conversion

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/02/19/pressure-unit-conversion/

Calibration of  GWR level transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/02/19/calibrationtheory-and-initialization-of-gwr-level-transmitter-rosemount-5300-and-ktek-5100/

Control Valves

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/02/18/control-valves/

ERS Level transmitter Parameters

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/02/18/calibration-and-initialization-of-electronic-remote-seal-level-transmitter-rosemount-3051ers/

Calibration of wet leg tube Level transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/01/16/calibration-and-initialization-of-wet-leg-impulse-tube-rosemount-3051cd-series-lt/

Calibration of capillary type Level transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/01/15/calibration-and-initialization-of-rosemount-3051cd-capillary-type-level-transmitter/

mV conversion chart

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2015/02/27/942/

Gulf JOB

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2013/09/18/contact-details-for-gulf-jobs/

Reynolds Number

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2012/11/28/reynolds-number/

Calibration of displacer type LT

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2012/11/16/calibration-procedure-of-displacer-type-level-transmitter/

My profile

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2012/06/20/click-here-then-photo-and-view-profile/

Chemical hazard pictogram

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2012/04/04/chemical-hazard-pictograms/

RTD conversion chart

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2012/02/17/calibration-of-dp-type-transmitter-with-actual-pressure/

Ingress Protection

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2012/01/18/ingress-protection/

To know more about Instrumentation and Control,

https://www.amazon.in/dp/B079TKRY1N?ref_=k4w_oembed_gQxp7c3jhGhlq0&tag=kpembed-20&linkCode=kpd

or

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2012/09/30/basic-instrumentation-and-calibration/

figure

AS-i (Actuator sensor-Interface Protocol)

1234567899a9b9c9d9e9f9g

https://youtu.be/EUNd8h9HZf4

Indian Penal Code

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/02/26/indian-penal-code-ipc/

RTD

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/02/27/temperature-transmitter-rtd/

Hook up diagram

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/02/27/instrument-installation-hook-up-diagram/

Calibration of Siemens Sipart PS2

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/02/27/calibration-of-siemens-sipart-ps2/

Calibration of Rosemount TT

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/02/27/calibration-of-temperature-transmitter-zero-trimming/

Control valve sizing equation

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/02/27/control-valve-sizing-equations/

Control valve leakage classification

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/02/27/control-valve-leakage-classification/

Bently Nevada VMS continued

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/02/27/bently-nevada-vms-continued/

Intrinsically safe barrier

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/03/07/intrinsically-safe-barriers/

I/P converter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/03/07/i-p-conveter/

Lapping of a control valve

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/03/07/lapping-of-a-control-valve/

Limit switch

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/03/09/limit-switch/

Dampers

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/03/21/dampers/

Hookup diagram continued

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/06/06/hook-up-diagrams-continued/

Instrumentation related to a motor driven pump

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/06/07/instrumentation-related-to-a-motor-driven-pump/

Flow transmitter DP type

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/07/19/flow-transmitter-dp-type/

Typical foundation fieldbus wiring

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/08/02/a-typical-foundation-field-bus-wiring-diagram/

Painting procedures

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/09/14/painting-procedure/

Instrumentation cable design specification

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/09/15/instrumentation-cable-design-specification/

Standard power supply requirements of instruments

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/09/15/standard-power-supply-requirements-for-instrumentation-devices/

Acceptable ranges of Instruments

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/09/15/acceptable-accuracy-ranges-of-instruments/

Instrumentation general design requirements part 1

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/10/09/general-design-requirements-of-instrumentation-part-1/

Instrumentation general design requirements part 2

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/10/09/general-design-requirements-of-instrumentation-part-2/

Instrumentation general design requirements part 3

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/10/09/general-design-requirements-of-instrumentation-part-3/

Instrumentation general design requirements part 4

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/10/09/general-design-requirements-of-instrumentation-part-4/

Instrumentation general design requirements part 5

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2019/10/09/general-design-requirements-of-instrumentation-part-5/

AS-i

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2020/02/22/as-i-actuator-sensor-interface-protocol/

Boiler

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2020/03/03/boiler/

Thermistors

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2020/04/05/thermistors/

Profibus

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2020/04/05/profibus/

3 element control

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2020/04/05/three-element-control-in-a-boiler/

Ultrasonic flow measurement

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2020/04/05/ultrasonic-flow-measurement-working-principle/

Parameter setting of  E+H LT

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/04/29/parameter-setting-of-eh-fmp51-gwr-lt/ Siemens LT parameter setting

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/04/29/parameter-setting-of-siemens-probe-lu-ultra-sonic-level-transmitter/

Parameter setting of KTek LT

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/04/29/parameter-setting-of-ktek-mt-5100-gwr-lt/ Analysis of Pump Vibration

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/06/08/analysis-of-motor-pump-vibration/ HART Communication

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/06/17/hart-communication/ Instrumentation tube fittings

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/03/28/instrumentation-tube-fittings/

Radar LT non contact type

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/03/19/radar-non-contact-level-transmitter-working-and-parameters/

Rosemount GWR parameter setting

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/03/15/parameter-setting-of-rosemount-gwr-5300-series-lt/

Offset calculation GWR

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/02/14/offset-calculation-for-a-guided-wave-radar-level-transmitter/

Temperature transmitter types

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/02/13/temperature-transmitter-classification-tree/

Flow transmitter types

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/02/13/flow-transmitter-classification-tree/

Level transmitter types

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/02/13/level-transmitter-classification-tree/

Pressure  transmitter types

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/02/13/pressure-transmitter-classification-tree/

Piping and Instrument diagram

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/02/04/pid/

Smoke detector working

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/02/02/smoke-detector-working-principle/

Conductivity transmitter working

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/02/02/conductivity-transmitters/

Gas detector working

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/02/01/gas-detector-working-point-gas-detector/

Flame detector working

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/02/01/flame-detector-working-principle/

Units and conversion

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/01/05/units-and-its-conversion/

Specific gravity

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/01/05/specific-gravity-of-selected-liquidsgases-and-saturated-waterfor-different-temperatures/

Instrumentation Interview questions

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2018/01/03/instrumentation-interview-questions/

Temperature transmitter calibration

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/12/20/temperature-transmitter-calibration/

Pressure transmitter calibration

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/12/19/pressure-transmitter-calibration/

Magnectostrictive LT calibration

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/12/19/magnetostrictive-level-transmitter/

Hazardous area classification

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/12/17/hazardous-area-classification/

Excel short keys

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/12/16/excel-short-keys/

Digital electronics

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/12/14/digital-electronics/

Thermocouple mV conversion chart

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/12/14/thermocouple-temperature-mv-conversion-chart/

Foundation field bus

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/11/20/foundation-fieldbus/

Rosemount 3051 series transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/11/20/rosemount-3051-series-transmitters/

Hydrogen sulphide

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/11/20/hydrogen-sulphide-h2s/

Root cause Analysis

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/11/20/root-cause-analysis/

Shore Key Line up

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/09/28/how-to-line-up-interface-level-transmitter/

pH Analyser

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/09/27/ph-analyzer-working-principle-and-calibration/

Mathematic Formula

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/09/24/important-mathematical-formulas/

India

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/08/15/india/

Oil in Water Analyser

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/08/13/oil-in-water-analyzer/

BSW Analyser

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/08/13/bsw-analyzer/

Capacitive Level Transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/08/12/capacitance-type-level-transmitter/

LRV and URV Level Transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/08/11/lrv-and-urv-of-interface-level-transmitter/

Instrument Loop Diagram

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/07/28/instrument-loop-diagrams/

Laser Level Transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/05/20/laser-level-transmitters/

Turbine Flow Transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/05/20/turbine-flow-meter/

Zero Suppression and Elevation

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/05/18/zero-suppression-and-elevation/

Bently Nevada 3500 VMS

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/04/08/bently-nevada-3500-vms/

Control Valve Servicing

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/04/08/smp-of-a-control-valve/

Safety Integrity Level

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/02/23/safety-integrity-level-sil/

Instrumentation Working Principle

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/02/22/instrumentation-working-principle-continued/

Instrumentation Gland Sizes

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/02/15/instrument-gland-sizes/

LRV and URV of DP level transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/01/02/lrv-and-urv-determination-for-d-p-type-level-transmitter/

Instrumentation working principle continued

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2017/01/02/instrumenation-working-principle/

Level measurement using Pressure gauge

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/06/10/level-measurement-using-pressure-gauge/

Tips and tricks in field Instrumentation

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/04/18/tips-and-tricks-in-field-instrumentation/

Data Communication Protocol

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/03/10/data-communication-protocols/

Pressure Unit Conversion

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/02/19/pressure-unit-conversion/

Calibration of  GWR level transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/02/19/calibrationtheory-and-initialization-of-gwr-level-transmitter-rosemount-5300-and-ktek-5100/

Control Valves

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/02/18/control-valves/

ERS Level transmitter Parameters

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/02/18/calibration-and-initialization-of-electronic-remote-seal-level-transmitter-rosemount-3051ers/

Calibration of wet leg tube Level transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/01/16/calibration-and-initialization-of-wet-leg-impulse-tube-rosemount-3051cd-series-lt/

Calibration of capillary type Level transmitter

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2016/01/15/calibration-and-initialization-of-rosemount-3051cd-capillary-type-level-transmitter/

mV conversion chart

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2015/02/27/942/

Gulf JOB

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2013/09/18/contact-details-for-gulf-jobs/

Reynolds Number

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2012/11/28/reynolds-number/

Calibration of displacer type LT

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2012/11/16/calibration-procedure-of-displacer-type-level-transmitter/

My profile

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2012/06/20/click-here-then-photo-and-view-profile/

Chemical hazard pictogram

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2012/04/04/chemical-hazard-pictograms/

RTD conversion chart

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2012/02/17/calibration-of-dp-type-transmitter-with-actual-pressure/

Ingress Protection

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2012/01/18/ingress-protection/

To know more about Instrumentation and Control,

https://www.amazon.in/dp/B079TKRY1N?ref_=k4w_oembed_gQxp7c3jhGhlq0&tag=kpembed-20&linkCode=kpd

or

https://kishorekaruppaswamy.wordpress.com/2012/09/30/basic-instrumentation-and-calibration/